Minerals discovered in paleolithic black pigments by transmission electron microscopy and micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

  title={Minerals discovered in paleolithic black pigments by transmission electron microscopy and micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure},
  author={Emilie Chalmin and Colette Vignaud and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Salomon and François Farges and Jean Susini and Michel Menu},
  journal={Applied Physics A},
Analysis of archeological materials aims to rediscover the know-how of prehistoric men by determining the nature of the painting matter, its preparation mode, and the geographic origin of its raw materials. The preparation mode of the painting matter of the paleolithic rock art apparently consisted of mixing, grinding, and also heat-treatment.In this study, we focus on black pigments and more particularly manganese oxides. Using the combined approach of transmission electron microscopy (TEM… 
In situ characterization by Raman and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of post-Paleolithic blackish pictographs exposed to the open air in Los Chaparros shelter (Albalate del Arzobispo, Teruel, Spain)
An in situ study of post-Palaeolithic blackish pictographs found in an open air rock-shelter, Los Chaparros site (Albalate del Arzobispo, Teruel province, Spain), was carried out to identify the
Hematite as unprecedented black rock art pigment in Jufri Cave, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: the microscopy, spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray-based investigation
Recent research on black pigment rock art reported on various prehistoric image sites globally consisting of carbon compounds and manganese oxides. In this paper, we report the unprecedented use of
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Iron speciation in ancient Attic pottery pigments: a non-destructive SR-XAS investigation.
The purpose of this study is to characterize the main pigmenting agents responsible for the dark-red coloration of the specimens using non-destructive analytical techniques such as synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS), a well established technique for cultural heritage and environmental subjects.
The first in situ micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis of prehistoric cave art of Rouffignac St-Cernin, France†
The first in situ micro-Raman spectroscopic study of prehistoric drawings found in the cave of Rouffignac-Saint-Cernin (Dordogne, France) was carried out. Rouffignac cave art, assigned to the upper
Application of field portable EDXRF spectrometry to analysis of pigments of Levantine rock art
The results of the analyses of elemental composition of red and black pigments of Levantine rock art from La Saltadora rock shelters (Valltorta gorge, Castellon, Spain) are presented in this paper.
Palaeolithic paint palettes used at La Garma Cave (Cantabria, Spain) investigated by means of combined in situ and synchrotron X-ray analytical methods
La Garma Cave is part of the most exceptional Palaeolithic sites discovered at the end of the 20th century in the North of Spain and was included by UNESCO in the World Heritage List in 2008. This
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The use of synchrotron radiation techniques to study cultural heritage and archaeological materials has undergone a steep increase over the past 10–15 years. The range of materials studied is very


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Raman microscopy, with its unique versatility and special advantages of no sample preparation and nondestructive analysis of both inorganic and organic materials, is now well established as the best
Palaeolithic painting matter: natural or heat-treated pigment?
Analyses of archaeological materials attempt to rediscover the know-how of Prehistoric men by determining the nature of the matter, its preparation mode, and its geographic origin. The preparation
Yellow goethite (α-FeOOH) and red hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) were used as pigments by Palaeolithic painters. When heated, goethite dehydrates and transforms to hematite. Archaeologists wonder whether
Archeological applications of XAFS: prehistorical paintings and medieval glasses
High-resolution manganese and iron K-edges XANES spectra were collected on several samples of archeological interest: prehistorical paintings and medieval glasses. XANES spectra were collected at the
Characterization of manganese oxide mineralogy in rock varnish and dendrites using X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Abstract X-ray absorption data were collected for a series of varnish and dendrite Mn oxide coatings on rock substrates containing a wide variety of mineralogies exposed to a variety of environments.
De l'usage des mineraux de manganese par les artistes de la grotteprehistorique de lascaux, sud-ouest de la France
AbstractThree new samples of manganese-based minerals have been collected from the Lascaux cave. They were found on the Paleolithic clay floor, covered and protected by a thick layer of white
La préparation des peintures magdaléniennes des cavernes ariégeoises in Spécial Préhistoire : 50e anniversaire de la découverte de Lascaux.
Res. d'A. L'analyse de la matiere picturale des oeuvres de la fin du Paleolithique superieur ariegeois met en lumiere la preparation d'une vraie peinture par les artistes magdaleniens. Les ateliers
Le Solutréen de la grotte de Combe Saunière 1 (Dordogne). Première approche palethnologique
Etude du materiel du niveau IV b (Solutreen) de cette grotte qui presente une importante stratigraphie. Analyse fonctionnelle de l'industrie lithique. L'equipement en outils indiquerait une