Mineral Arsenicals in Traditional Medicines: Orpiment, Realgar, and Arsenolite

  title={Mineral Arsenicals in Traditional Medicines: Orpiment, Realgar, and Arsenolite},
  author={Jie Liu and Yuanfu Lu and Qin Wu and Robert A. Goyer and Michael P. Waalkes},
  journal={Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics},
  pages={363 - 368}
Mineral arsenicals have long been used in traditional medicines for various diseases, yet arsenic can be highly toxic and carcinogenic. Arsenic in traditional medicines typically comes from deliberate addition for therapeutic purposes, mainly in the form of mineral arsenicals, including orpiment (As2S3), realgar (As4S4), and arsenolite (contains arsenic trioxide, As2O3). Inorganic arsenic is now accepted in Western medicine as a first line chemotherapeutic agent against certain hematopoietic… 

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Arsenicals are a double-edged sword and are used as therapeutics as well as poisons from time immemorial. Mineral arsenicals such as orpiment (As2S3), realgar (As4S4) and arsenolite (As2O3) have been

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In the face of increasing antibiotic resistance and the emergence of deadly pathogens such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, it is proposed revisiting arsenicals with proven efficacy to combat emerging pathogens.

Challenges for application of realgar: A critical review

The toxicology, bioaccessibility, and pharmacology of the realgar used in Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines are evaluated, building realgar an exciting biomedical and pharmaceutical research applicant.

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Toxicology Evaluation of Realgar-Containing Niu-Huang-Jie-Du Pian as Compared to Arsenicals in Cell Cultures and in Mice

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Systemic availability of arsenic from oral arsenic-trioxide used to treat patients with hematological malignancies

Compared with i.v. dosing, the oral As2O3 formulation was more convenient and cost effective, and the ensuing systemic bioavailability of arsenic appeared similar, as arsenic seemed to be concentrated in the cellular fraction of blood 48 h after starting As2 O3 treatment.

Effective treatment of advanced solid tumors by the combination of arsenic trioxide and L-buthionine-sulfoximine

It is proposed that the combination therapy of As2O3 with BSO is a valid means of blockade of H2O2-scavenging system, and that the combinations of a ROS-generating agent with an inhibitor of major scavenging systems is effective in terms of both efficacy and selectivity.

Induction of metallothionein by arsenicals in mice.

Hepatic MT induction peaked at 24 hr, and in addition to the liver, As(III) also increased MT in kidney, spleen, stomach, intestine, heart, and lung, and none of the arsenicals induced MT in mouse primary hepatocyte cultures.

Mechanisms of action of arsenic trioxide.

Substantial data show that arsenic trioxide produces remissions in patients with APL at least in part through a mechanism that results in the degradation of the aberrant PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion protein.

Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines.

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