Mineral Arsenicals in Traditional Medicines: Orpiment, Realgar, and Arsenolite

@article{Liu2008MineralAI,
  title={Mineral Arsenicals in Traditional Medicines: Orpiment, Realgar, and Arsenolite},
  author={Jie Liu and Yuanfu Lu and Qin Wu and Robert A. Goyer and Michael P. Waalkes},
  journal={Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics},
  year={2008},
  volume={326},
  pages={363 - 368}
}
  • J. Liu, Y. Lu, +2 authors M. Waalkes
  • Published 2008
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Mineral arsenicals have long been used in traditional medicines for various diseases, yet arsenic can be highly toxic and carcinogenic. Arsenic in traditional medicines typically comes from deliberate addition for therapeutic purposes, mainly in the form of mineral arsenicals, including orpiment (As2S3), realgar (As4S4), and arsenolite (contains arsenic trioxide, As2O3). Inorganic arsenic is now accepted in Western medicine as a first line chemotherapeutic agent against certain hematopoietic… Expand
Inexplicable Arsenic: Human Dimensions of Soil, Water, Food and Microbial Resources
Arsenicals are a double-edged sword and are used as therapeutics as well as poisons from time immemorial. Mineral arsenicals such as orpiment (As2S3), realgar (As4S4) and arsenolite (As2O3) have beenExpand
Challenges for application of realgar: A critical review
Realgar has been not only well-known poisons but also used as healing agent. Realgar has long been used in traditional medicines for different diseases; so far arsenic can be extremely toxic andExpand
Realgar and realgar-containing Liu-Shen-Wan are less acutely toxic than arsenite and arsenate.
TLDR
Realgar and LSW are much less toxic than arsenite and arenate, and the use of total As content to evaluate the safety of realgar-containing traditional medicines is not scientifically sound. Expand
Bioaccessibility of lead and arsenic in traditional Indian medicines.
TLDR
Results suggest that consumption at recommended doses of all medicines with bioaccessibile lead or arsenic would lead to the exceedance of at least one standard for acceptable daily intake of toxic elements. Expand
Chemical form of metals in traditional medicines underlines potential toxicity in cell cultures.
TLDR
Chemical forms of metals are important factor in determining their toxicity in traditional medicines, both cinnabar and realgar are much less toxic than well-known mercurial and arsenicals. Expand
The medicinal use of realgar (As₄S₄) and its recent development as an anticancer agent.
TLDR
According to ancient medical records and recent findings in clinical trials, realgar was found as effective as ATO, but with relatively good oral safety profiles even on chronic administration, giving realgar an advantage over ATO in maintenance treatment. Expand
Speciation and bioaccessibility of arsenic in traditional Chinese medicines and assessment of its potential health risk.
TLDR
The average daily intake dose (ADD) and hazard quotient (HQ) of arsenic in most of medicines were within the safe limits, while in certain medicines, they exceeded the safe threshold level. Expand
Toxicology Evaluation of Realgar-Containing Niu-Huang-Jie-Du Pian as Compared to Arsenicals in Cell Cultures and in Mice
TLDR
Realgar and NHJD are much less toxic than arsenite and arsenate, and the use of total arsenic to evaluate the safety of realgar and realgar-containing NHJD is inappropriate. Expand
Comparative health risk assessment of realgar and NiuHuangJieDu tablets based on tissue arsenic levels after multiple oral administration to rats.
TLDR
NHJDT with co-existing components combination was relatively safe than realgar, but the accumulation of arsenic was still significant after long-term medication, and great attentions should be paid to realgar-containing TCMs to avoid arsenic toxicity caused by arsenic accumulation. Expand
Health risk assessment of arsenic in Realgar and NiuHuangJieDu Tablets based on pharmacokinetic study.
  • Xiao Wu, Shanhu Wu, +4 authors T. Hang
  • Medicine
  • Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements
  • 2018
TLDR
NHJDT significantly reduced the total blood arsenic exposure present in realgar, and the detoxification mechanism might be attributed to herb-herb interactions in NHJ DT, but the accumulation of blood total arsenic was significant due to the long elimination half-life and high accumulation index in both realgar and NHJDT groups. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 66 REFERENCES
Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills.
TLDR
Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion, and bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Expand
The metabolism of inorganic arsenic oxides, gallium arsenide, and arsine: a toxicochemical review.
TLDR
There is insufficient evidence to equate the different arsenic compounds, and there are several differences in the toxicity of the arsenic compounds that will require substantial research. Expand
Public Health Risks from Heavy Metals and Metalloids Present in Traditional Chinese Medicines
TLDR
Out of 247 traditional Chinese medicines investigated, a proportion were contaminated with arsenic, lead, and mercury, with exceedances as high as 2760-fold, which posed a potential danger to public health. Expand
Systemic availability of arsenic from oral arsenic-trioxide used to treat patients with hematological malignancies
TLDR
Compared with i.v. dosing, the oral As2O3 formulation was more convenient and cost effective, and the ensuing systemic bioavailability of arsenic appeared similar, as arsenic seemed to be concentrated in the cellular fraction of blood 48 h after starting As2 O3 treatment. Expand
Effective treatment of advanced solid tumors by the combination of arsenic trioxide and L-buthionine-sulfoximine
TLDR
It is proposed that the combination therapy of As2O3 with BSO is a valid means of blockade of H2O2-scavenging system, and that the combinations of a ROS-generating agent with an inhibitor of major scavenging systems is effective in terms of both efficacy and selectivity. Expand
Induction of metallothionein by arsenicals in mice.
TLDR
Hepatic MT induction peaked at 24 hr, and in addition to the liver, As(III) also increased MT in kidney, spleen, stomach, intestine, heart, and lung, and none of the arsenicals induced MT in mouse primary hepatocyte cultures. Expand
Solubility, retention, and metabolism of intratracheally and orally administered inorganic arsenic compounds in the hamster.
TLDR
Oral administered arsenic had a shorter biological half-life than intratracheal and oral administration, especially when given in the form of arsenic trisulfide or lead arsenate particles, which seemed to be absorbed to only 20-30% in the gastrointestinal tract. Expand
Mechanisms of action of arsenic trioxide.
TLDR
Substantial data show that arsenic trioxide produces remissions in patients with APL at least in part through a mechanism that results in the degradation of the aberrant PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion protein. Expand
Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines.
  • E. Ernst
  • Medicine
  • Trends in pharmacological sciences
  • 2002
TLDR
Evidence from various countries implies that toxic heavy metals and undeclared prescription drugs in Asian herbal medicines might constitute a serious health problem, however, the majority of the data is anecdotal and insufficient to define prevalence figures. Expand
Evaluation of the in vitro activity and in vivo bioavailability of realgar nanoparticles prepared by cryo-grinding.
  • Jin-Zhu Wu, P. Ho
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • 2006
TLDR
In in vivo study, a remarkable increase in urinary recovery of arsenic was observed in rats after a single oral administration of the cryo-ground realgar particle suspension, suggesting that size reduction of realgar particles to nano levels could enhance its bioavailability substantially. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...