Mind wandering while reading easy and difficult texts

  title={Mind wandering while reading easy and difficult texts},
  author={Shi Feng and Sidney K. D’Mello and Arthur C. Graesser},
  journal={Psychonomic Bulletin \& Review},
Mind wandering is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from the primary task to task-unrelated thoughts. Previous studies have used self-report methods to measure the frequency of mind wandering and its effects on task performance. Many of these studies have investigated mind wandering in simple perceptual and memory tasks, such as recognition memory, sustained attention, and choice reaction time tasks. Manipulations of task difficulty have revealed that mind wandering occurs more… 
Concurrent prospective memory task increases mind wandering during online reading for difficult but not easy texts.
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Mind-wandering has emerged in the past decade as a popular topic in many areas of psychological research. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential costs and benefits of mind-wandering in
The effect of disfluency on mind wandering during text comprehension
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Studying in the region of proximal learning reduces mind wandering
The results indicate that the RPL is specific to the individual’s level of mastery and that mind wandering occurs when people are outside that region.
In pursuit of off-task thought: mind wandering-performance trade-offs while reading aloud and color naming
It is suggested that individuals can adjust the relative distribution of executive/attentional resources between internal and external goals in a way that maximizes off-task thought while preserving primary task performance.
Mind wandering increases linearly with text difficulty
It is shown that a linear relationship between difficulty and mind wandering exists during common page-by-page reading of pre-existing texts and that this relationship holds across a broad range of difficulty levels.


Why does working memory capacity predict variation in reading comprehension? On the influence of mind wandering and executive attention.
Mind wandering was a significant mediator in the relationship between WMC and reading comprehension, suggesting that the WMC-comprehension correlation is driven, in part, by attention control over intruding thoughts.
Task-Unrelated Images and Thoughts While Reading
The study of task-unrelated images and thoughts (TUITS) has typically been conducted during non-semantic tasks such as sustained attention or vigilance tasks. This study investigated TUIT frequency
Mind-wandering While Reading: Attentional Decoupling, Mindless Reading and the Cascade Model of Inattention
Following the presentation of a model of the decoupled state and a specific consideration of mind-wandering during reading, five key unresolved issues for future research in mindless reading are identified.
For Whom the Mind Wanders, and When
An experience-sampling study of 124 undergraduates, pretested on complex memory-span tasks, found that during challenging activities requiring concentration and effort, higher-WMC subjects maintained on-task thoughts better, and mind-wandered less, than did lower-W MC subjects.
Absorbed in Thought
The data contradict the suggestion that mind wandering is associated with distraction problems or specific deficits in task-relevant processes and are consistent with the decoupling hypothesis: that TUT dampens the processing of sensory information irrespective of that information’s task relevance.
The Persistence of Thought
Investigating whether individuals with greater WM resources mind-wander more during an undemanding task, as would be predicted only by the theory that WM supports TUT found that individuals with higher WM capacity reported more TUT in undemanded tasks, which suggests that WM enables the maintenance of mind wandering.
The restless mind.
Evidence suggests that mind wandering shares many similarities with traditional notions of executive control, and can be seen as a goal-driven process, albeit one that is not directed toward the primary task.
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The results confirm the intuition that zoning out during reading is an indication that the construction of the situation model has gone awry, and underscore the fact that the authors' ability to understand ongoing events depends on the ability to pay attention when it matters.
The Consistency across Vigilance and Reading Tasks of Individual Differences in the Occurrence of Task-Unrelated and Task-Related Images and Thoughts
Support for the notion of stable individual differences in TUIT production is indicated as no between-task consistency was evident for TST frequency and TST production may be more directly influenced by the immediate task, as opposed to an individual cognitive capacity for processing information.