Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population

  title={Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population},
  author={John M. Pleasants and Karen S. Oberhauser},
  journal={Insect Conservation and Diversity},
Abstract.  1. The size of the Mexican overwintering population of monarch butterflies has decreased over the last decade. Approximately half of these butterflies come from the U.S. Midwest where larvae feed on common milkweed. There has been a large decline in milkweed in agricultural fields in the Midwest over the last decade. This loss is coincident with the increased use of glyphosate herbicide in conjunction with increased planting of genetically modified (GM) glyphosate‐tolerant corn… 
Propagating native milkweeds for restoring monarch butterfly habitat
This resource booklet encourages you to grow and outplant milkweeds to create habitat for monarch butterflies and help restore their populations.
Milkweed restoration in the Midwest for monarch butterfly recovery: estimates of milkweeds lost, milkweeds remaining and milkweeds that must be added to increase the monarch population
A massive milkweed restoration effort will be needed to produce a resilient monarch population due to the loss of milkweeds in corn and soybean fields in the Midwest due to herbicide use.
The Importance of Shifting Disturbance Regimes in Monarch Butterfly Decline and Recovery
It is argued that in addition to milkweed loss, monarch declines were likely exacerbated by shifting disturbance regimes within their summer breeding range, and targeted disturbance in perennial grasslands could improve habitat heterogeneity and phenologic diversity of milkweeds, and should be explored as a monarch conservation strategy.
Long-Term Trends in Midwestern Milkweed Abundances and Their Relevance to Monarch Butterfly Declines
A long-term plant survey from Illinois is used to evaluate whether trends in milkweed abundance have caused monarch decline and to highlight the habitat-management practices that promote milkweeds.
Japanese beetles’ feeding on milkweed flowers may compromise efforts to restore monarch butterfly habitat
The beetle’s ongoing incursion into the monarchs’ key breeding grounds in the US Midwest is likely to limit pollination and outcrossing of wild and planted milkweeds, reducing their capacity to colonize new areas via seeds.
Effects of Dicamba on monarch oviposition and larval growth and development
If dicamba injury on common milkweed affected monarch (Danaus plexippus) oviposition preference and larval development, it did not affect monarch larval weight, pupa weight, adult forewing length, or sex ratio.
Milkweed patch size effects on monarch butterfly oviposition within Iowa prairies and roadsides
It is hypothesized that monarch oviposition is not random and is influenced by milkweed patch size, and optimized patch size could help maximize egg and caterpillar production.
Productive engagement with agriculture essential to monarch butterfly conservation
Since the GreenRevolution, the increasingproductivity of agriculture has largely been driven by intensification, i.e. the use of monocultures of selected crop varieties coupled with increased
Restoring monarch butterfly habitat in the Midwestern US: ?all hands on deck?
The eastern migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus plexippus) has declined by >80% within the last two decades. One possible cause of this decline is the loss of ≥1.3 billion


Temporal and spatial overlap between monarch larvae and corn pollen
It is found that monarchs use milkweed in cornfields throughout their breeding season, and that per plant densities are as high or higher in agricultural habitats as in nonagricultural habitats, suggesting that agricultural practices such as weed control and foliar insecticide use could have large impacts on monarch populations.
Decline of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico: is the migratory phenomenon at risk?
Abstract.  1. During the 2009–2010 overwintering season and following a 15‐year downward trend, the total area in Mexico occupied by the eastern North American population of overwintering monarch
Dispersal and egg shortfall in Monarch butterflies: what happens when the matrix is cleaned up?
1. We use an individual‐based model describing the life of a monarch butterfly, which utilises milkweeds both aggregated in patches and scattered across the wider landscape as a substrate for laying
Temporal and spatial variation of mortality in field populations of Danaus plexippus L. and D. chrysippus L. Larvae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
SummaryMortality estimates for the immature stages of two butterfly species, Danaus plexippus and D. chrysippus, were obtained by observing the survival of egg cohorts on different sized patches of
Control of Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
Control of common milkweed with postemergence herbicides was investigated in green- house and field experiments and found that post- emergence herbicides commonly used in corn, sorghum, and soybeans had little effect on emerged com- mon milkweed.
Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature, and Host Plant Age on Induction of Reproductive Diapause and Development Time in Danaus Plexippus
1. Diapause induction in monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus was studied using adults captured from the wild in Minnesota and Wisconsin, and individuals reared under outdoor and controlled
Weed and Herbicide-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max) Response to Glufosinate and Glyphosate Plus Ammonium Sulfate and Pelargonic Acid1
Addition of ammonium sulfate can increase the efficacy of glufosinate and glyphosate on perennial weeds without negatively affecting soybean yield and under field conditions, the addition of pelargonic acid did not improve efficacy on annual weeds.
Are migratory monarchs really declining in eastern North America? Examining evidence from two fall census programs
Abstract.  1. The status of the eastern North American monarch butterfly population is a highly sensitive issue, given that winter and breeding habitats are being lost at an alarming rate each year,