Military Technology Transfers from Ming China and the Emergence of Northern Mainland Southeast Asia (c. 1390–1527)

  title={Military Technology Transfers from Ming China and the Emergence of Northern Mainland Southeast Asia (c. 1390–1527)},
  author={Sun Laichen},
  journal={Journal of Southeast Asian Studies},
  pages={495 - 517}
  • Sun Laichen
  • Published 2003
  • History
  • Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
During the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, Chinese gunpowder technology spread to the whole of Southeast Asia via both the overland and maritime routes, long before the arrival of European firearms. The impact of Chinese firearms on northern mainland Southeast Asia in terms of warfare and territorial expansion was profound. 
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The attack on Nan is mentioned in Nan chronicle
  • On the threat to Sipsong Panna, see MSL
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  • 1989
All dates are converted with reference to Keith Hazelton, A synchronic Chinese-Western daily calendar
  • The Cambridge History of China
  • 1984
According to the latter, pao were fired specifically as a signal, but it can be inferred that other firearms were used as well; see also Wang, Zhongguo
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