Military Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

  title={Military Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury},
  author={Justin Weppner and Mark Linsenmeyer and William Ide},
  journal={Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports},
  pages={323 - 332}
This paper aims to review and discuss the epidemiological, neuropathologic, and mechanistic characteristics of blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) specific to the military population. Military service members have sustained over 383,000 reported incidents of TBI since 2000. In combat, mild bTBI due to explosive attacks comprise the most common type. Identification, treatment, and reporting of bTBI are compounded by the operational demands of combat as well as frequent co-presentation with PTSD… 
2 Citations
Development of a new militarily-relevant whole-body low-intensity blast model for mild and subconcussive traumatic brain injury: Examination of acute neurological and multi-organ pathological outcomes
A newly developed experimental mouse model reproducing features of blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT), induced in operationally relevant manner using a compressed air-driven shock tube provides realistic representation of operational scenarios and reproduces militarily-relevant smBINT and rscBINT in the laboratory.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Cavitation as a Mechanism of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Current Debates, Methods, and Findings
This review presents the most prominent debates on cavitation; how bubbles can form or exist within the cerebrospinal fluid and brain vasculature, potential mechanisms of cellular, and tissue level damage following the collapse of bubbles in response to local pressure fluctuations, and a survey of experimental and computational models used to address cavitation research questions.


Traumatic Brain Injury Screening: Preliminary Findings in a US Army Brigade Combat Team
Those with TBI were significantly more likely to recall somatic and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms immediately postinjury and endorse symptoms at follow-up than were soldiers without a history of deployment-related TBI.
Explosive blast neurotrauma.
Observations suggest that the mechanism by which explosive blast injures the central nervous system may be more complex than initially assumed.
Understanding Treatment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the Military Health System.
A RAND study, the first to examine the mTBI care of a census of patients in the Military Health System, revealed inconsistencies in the diagnostic coding, as well as areas for improvement in coordinating care across providers and care settings.
Perspectives on Creating Clinically Relevant Blast Models for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms
In this publication, existing diagnostic challenges and current treatment practices for mTBI and/or PTSD will be summarized, along with suggestions regarding how what has been learned from existing models of PTSD and traditional mechanism can be used to facilitate the development of clinically relevant blast models.
Detection of blast-related traumatic brain injury in U.S. military personnel.
DTI findings in U.S. military personnel support the hypothesis that blast-related mild traumatic brain injury can involve axonal injury, and follow-up DTI scans in 47 subjects with traumatic brain injuries showed persistent abnormalities that were consistent with evolving injuries.
Neuropathology of Explosive Blast Traumatic Brain Injury
This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to explosive blast TBI and discusses the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of Explosive blast neurotrauma.
Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq.
Mildtraumatic brain injury occurring among soldiers deployed in Iraq is strongly associated with PTSD and physical health problems 3 to 4 months after the soldiers return home, and after adjustment for PTSD and depression, mild traumatic brain injury was no longer significantly associated with these physical health outcomes or symptoms, except for headache.
Comparison of Concussive Symptoms, Cognitive Performance, and Psychological Symptoms Between Acute Blast-Versus Nonblast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Results suggest that there are few differences in concussive symptoms, psychological symptoms, and neurocognitive performance between blast and nonblast mTBIs, although clinically significant impairment in cognitive reaction time for both blast andnonblast groups is observed.
Rehabilitation needs of an increasing population of patients: Traumatic brain injury, polytrauma, and blast-related injuries.
  • H. Lew
  • Medicine
    Journal of rehabilitation research and development
  • 2005
The term “polytrauma” has been coined to describe this increasing population of patients, where traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs in combination with multiple disabling conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression.
Traumatic Brain Injury Associated With Combat Ocular Trauma
Closed-globe injuries are at highest risk for TBI while TBI does not appear to lead to poorer visual outcomes, and those service members who are screened TBI positive need a referral to a TBI rehabilitation specialist.