Midsole thickness affects running patterns in habitual rearfoot strikers during a sustained run.

  title={Midsole thickness affects running patterns in habitual rearfoot strikers during a sustained run.},
  author={Trampas Tenbroek and Pedro A Rodrigues and Edward C. Frederick and Joseph Hamill},
  journal={Journal of applied biomechanics},
  volume={30 4},
The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate how kinematic patterns are adjusted while running in footwear with THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsole thicknesses and (2) determine if these patterns are adjusted over time during a sustained run in footwear of different thicknesses. Ten male heel-toe runners performed treadmill runs in specially constructed footwear (THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsoles) on separate days. Standard lower extremity kinematics and acceleration at the tibia and head were… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The influence of prolonged running and footwear on lower extremity biomechanics

Investigation of the influence of neutral and stability footwear worn during a 42-minute prolonged treadmill run on lower extremity biomechanics found increased knee flexion and rearfoot eversion observed during mid-stance may exhibit a strategy to reduce the effective mass and minimize joint loads applied to the foot and knee.

Effects of midsole thickness on ground reaction force, ankle stability, and sports performances in four basketball movements.

Changes in midsole thickness can influence cushioning and rearfoot stability in running, but no information has been established in basketball. This study aimed to investigate whether midsole

Running into Fatigue: The Effects of Footwear on Kinematics, Kinetics, and Energetics

Although the authors did not find a difference between shoes in the fatigue-related redistribution of joint work from distal to more proximal joints, more systematical studies are needed to explore the effects of specific footwear design features.

Reliability of a Multisegment Foot Model in Shod Running

The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic and marker placement reliability of the Leardini multisegment foot model (LMFM) for tracking foot kinematics during barefoot and shod running

Immediate and short-term adaptations to maximalist and minimalist running shoes

Runners appear to immediately respond to changes in heel-toe drop and level of cushioning when running in an unfamiliar shoe, particularly in the initial month of exposure.

Measurement of intrinsic foot stiffness in minimally and traditionally shod runners using ultrasound elastography: A pilot study

A relationship between training load and tendon stiffness suggests strengthening of tendon when running in traditional shoes, and it is possible that minimalist footwear may increase injury risk.

No immediate effects of highly cushioned shoes on basic running biomechanics

Overall, there was no effect of footwear on IP, LR, AP, CT and velocity and the results indicate that the highly cushioned shoes did not show immediate changes in running biomechanics.

Biomechanical and perceptual cushioning sensitivity based on mechanical running shoe properties

Mechanical shoe properties impact running biomechanics, triggering subjective shoe perception, and little is known about the minimal mechanical alteration needed to change midsole hardness.

Biomechanical effects of continuous loop running in comparison to discontinuous runway running on locomotion and running shoe characterization

Comparing biomechanical effects of continuous loop and discontinuous runway running on locomotion and running shoe characterisation suggests that continuous loop running should be used when precise absolute variable magnitudes are required while runway running tests appear sufficient for general comparative shoe evaluation.

The Implications of Sports Biomechanics Studies on the Research and Development of Running Shoes: A Systematic Review

Although various sports footwear demonstrated marked changes in running biomechanical variables, few studies have yielded definitive findings on the underlying mechanisms of shoe constructions

Effects of unknown footwear midsole thickness on running kinematics within the initial six minutes of running

Runners sensitive to eversion and tibial internal rotation should use caution when barefoot or in minimal footwear, and the greatest kinematic changes occurred within the first six to eight steps, however more subtle changes continued throughout the six minute run.

Biomechanical and physiological comparison of barefoot and two shod conditions in experienced barefoot runners.

The data of this study support the assumption that changes in the foot-ground interface led to changes in running pattern in a group of experienced barefoot runners and the Fivefingers model seems to be effective in imitating the barefoot conditions while providing a small amount of protection.

Impact characteristics in shod and barefoot running

Increased impact characteristics are often cited as a cause of running injuries. One method that has been used to reduce impact characteristics is to increase the thickness of the midsole of running

Kinematic adaptations during running: effects of footwear, surface, and duration.

Lower-extremity kinematics adapted to increased midsole hardness, surface stiffness, and running duration that appeared to have the goal of minimizing metabolic cost at the expense of increased exposure to impact shock.

Timing of Lower Extremity Motions during Barefoot and Shod Running at Three Velocities

Results suggest that by dividing the pronation curve into 3 phases, more detailed and useful information is available to describe the lime relationship between flexion-extension of the knee and pro-supination.

Stiffness adaptations in shod running.

It makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications, as runners could still adapt to the shoe.

Impacts and kinematic adjustments during an exhaustive run.

The altered kinematics may have resulted in increased metabolic costs during the latter stages of the exhaustive run, and the increase in peak impact accelerations at the leg was not considered an increased injury risk because of the decreased effective mass.