Midkine acts as proangiogenic cytokine in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis.

@article{Weckbach2012MidkineAA,
  title={Midkine acts as proangiogenic cytokine in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis.},
  author={Ludwig T. Weckbach and Leopold Groesser and Julia Borgolte and Judith-Irina Pagel and Frank Pogoda and J{\"u}rgen Schymeinsky and Josef Mueller-Hoecker and Mehdi Shakibaei and Takashi Muramatsu and Elisabeth Deindl and Barbara Walzog},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology},
  year={2012},
  volume={303 4},
  pages={
          H429-38
        }
}
The cytokine midkine (MK) promotes tumor growth mainly by inducing angiogenesis. Here, we identified the source of MK in the vascular system under hypoxic conditions and demonstrated the relevance of MK during ischemia of normal tissue. Hypoxia increased MK protein expression in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) compared with normoxia. Immunoelectron microscopy showed elevated cell surface expression of MK in PMN and… CONTINUE READING
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