Middle Miocene Dispersals of Apes

@article{Andrews2007MiddleMD,
  title={Middle Miocene Dispersals of Apes},
  author={Peter M. Andrews and Jay Kelley},
  journal={Folia Primatologica},
  year={2007},
  volume={78},
  pages={328 - 343}
}
The earliest record of fossil apes outside Africa is in the latest early Miocene of Turkey and eastern Europe. There were at least 2, and perhaps 4, species of ape, which were found associated with subtropical mixed environments of forest and more open woodland. Postcranial morphology is similar to that of early Miocene primates and indicates mainly generalized arboreal quadrupedal behaviours similar to those of less specialized New World monkeys such as Cebus. Robust jaws and thick enamelled… 

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