Microtubule movements on the arms of mitotic chromosomes: polar ejection forces quantified in vitro.


During mitosis, "polar ejection forces" (PEFs) are hypothesized to direct prometaphase chromosome movements by pushing chromosome arms toward the spindle equator. PEFs are postulated to be caused by (i) plus-end-directed microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins on the chromosome arms, namely chromokinesins, and (ii) the polymerization of spindle MTs into the… (More)


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