Microsatellites: genomic distribution, putative functions and mutational mechanisms: a review

  title={Microsatellites: genomic distribution, putative functions and mutational mechanisms: a review},
  author={You-Chun Li and Abraham B. Korol and Tzion Fahima and Avigdor Beiles and Eviatar Nevo},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
Microsatellites, or tandem simple sequence repeats (SSR), are abundant across genomes and show high levels of polymorphism. SSR genetic and evolutionary mechanisms remain controversial. Here we attempt to summarize the available data related to SSR distribution in coding and noncoding regions of genomes and SSR functional importance. Numerous lines of evidence demonstrate that SSR genomic distribution is nonrandom. Random expansions or contractions appear to be selected against for at least… 
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Modulation of Gene Expression by Microsatellites in Microbes
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The physical and genomic organization of microsatellites in sugar beet.
The physical distribution of microsatellites on chromosomes of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is characterized and in-gel and in situ hybridization patterns are correlated, with highly repeated restriction fragments indicating major centromeric sites of microSatellite arrays.
Microsatellite mutations in the germline: implications for evolutionary inference.
GT repeats are associated with recombination on human chromosome 22.
Analyzing the complete sequence data from human chromosome 22 and comparing microsatellite repeat distributions with mitotic recombination patterns available from earlier genetic studies shows significant correlation between long tandem GT repeats, which are known to form Z-DNA and interact with several components of the recombination machinery, and recombination hot spots on human chromosomes 22.
Microsatellites are preferentially associated with nonrepetitive DNA in plant genomes
Microsatellites are a ubiquitous class of simple repetitive DNA sequence. An excess of such repetitive tracts has been described in all eukaryotes analyzed and is thought to result from the
Simple sequence repeats as a source of quantitative genetic variation.
Distribution of dinucleotide microsatellites in the Drosophila melanogaster genome.
The distribution of dinucleotide microsatellites in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster is reported and a significant positive correlation between AT content and (AT/TA)n microsatellite density was detected, which may indicate that micros satellite genesis is a random process and also find evidence for a nonrandom distribution of micros satellites.
Simple sequence repeats in Escherichia coli: abundance, distribution, composition, and polymorphism.
SSR polymorphism could prove important as a genome-wide source of variation, both for practical applications (including rapid detection, strain identification, and detection of loci affecting key phenotypes) and for evolutionary adaptation of microbes.
Selection against frameshift mutations limits microsatellite expansion in coding DNA.
The findings suggest that the differences between coding and noncoding microsatellite frequencies arise from specific selection against frameshift mutations in coding regions resulting from length changes in nontriplet repeats.
Microsatellite evolution: polarity of substitutions within repeats and neutrality of flanking sequences
Three models that potentially could explain a relative instability close to the boundary between repetitive and unique sequences in microsatellites are presented, all involving inefficiency of mismatch repair systems.