Micropumps operated by swelling and shrinking of temperature-sensitive hydrogels.

@article{Richter2009MicropumpsOB,
  title={Micropumps operated by swelling and shrinking of temperature-sensitive hydrogels.},
  author={Andreas Richter and Stephan Klatt and Georgi Paschew and C. Klenke},
  journal={Lab on a chip},
  year={2009},
  volume={9 4},
  pages={
          613-8
        }
}
This paper describes two types of polymeric micropumps based on the temperature-sensitive hydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). The gel actuators are realised as photopolymerised patterns and microgels. They are electrothermically controlled by resistive heating elements. The diffusion-based micropump contains a photopatterned monolithic actuator, which is placed within the pump chamber, and provides a valveless single layer set-up. The diffusion micropump is intended for low performance… 
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