Microorganisms linked to inflammatory bowel disease-associated dysbiosis differentially impact host physiology in gnotobiotic mice.

Abstract

Studying host-microbiota interactions are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms involved in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. In this work, we analyzed these interactions in mice that were mono-associated with six microorganisms that are representative of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated dysbiosis: the bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, adhesive-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), Ruminococcus gnavus and Roseburia intestinalis; a yeast used as a probiotic drug, Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745; and another yeast, Candida albicans. Extensive ex vivo analyses including colon transcriptomics, histology, immune response, bile acid metabolism and short-chain fatty acid production were studied. We showed that B. thetaiotaomicron had the highest impact on the immune system because it was almost able to recapitulate the effects of the entire conventional microbiota and notably induced Treg pathways. Furthermore, these analyses uncovered the effects of E. coli AIEC LF82 on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression and of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 on angiogenesis. These results were confirmed in vitro in human cell lines. Finally, our results suggested that R. gnavus has major effects on metabolism, and notably on tryptophan metabolism. This work therefore reveals that microorganisms with a potential role in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation have specific impacts on the host, and it suggests several tracks to follow to understand intestinal homeostasis and IBD pathogenesis better, providing new insights to identify novel therapeutic targets.

DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2015.127
0500100020162017
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@article{Hoffmann2016MicroorganismsLT, title={Microorganisms linked to inflammatory bowel disease-associated dysbiosis differentially impact host physiology in gnotobiotic mice.}, author={Thomas W Hoffmann and Hang-Phuong Pham and Chantal Bridonneau and Camille Aubry and Bruno Lamas and Camille Martin-Gallausiaux and Marco Moroldo and Dominique Rainteau and Nicolas Lapaque and Adrien Six and Mathias L Richard and Emilie Fargier and Marie-Emmanuelle Le Guern and Philippe Langella and Harry Sokol}, journal={The ISME journal}, year={2016}, volume={10 2}, pages={460-77} }