A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-MES19T, was isolated from pine forest soil in Heilongjiang province, China. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic position of this strain. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Micromonospora. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-MES19T was most closely related to Micromonospora matsumotoense IMSNU 22003T. However, phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence showed that the isolate was more closely related to Micromonospora cremea CR30T than M. matsumotoense IMSNU 22003T. The low level of DNA–DNA relatedness allowed the isolate to be differentiated from M. matsumotoense IMSNU 22003T and M. cremea CR30T. Moreover, strain NEAU-MES19T could also be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-MES19T represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora maoerensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-MES19T (=CGMCC 4.7091T = DSM 45884T).