Microminiature refrigeration — small is better

  title={Microminiature refrigeration — small is better},
  author={William A. Little},
Abstract Microminiature Joule-Thomson refrigerators have been fabricated using a novel photolithographic process. We discuss the scaling laws which allow one to design these refrigerators of arbitrarily small size and the fabrication process which makes it possible to mass produce them at low cost. Commercial systems are now available for operation with N 2 gas from ambient to 80 K with a refrigerator capacity of 250 mW. Lower temperature operation using H 2 and He is presently under… CONTINUE READING