Micromarkers: miRNAs in cancer diagnosis and prognosis

  title={Micromarkers: miRNAs in cancer diagnosis and prognosis},
  author={Manuela Ferracin and Angelo Veronese and Massimo Negrini},
  journal={Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics},
  pages={297 - 308}
Molecular diagnostics in cancer should provide the highest specificity and sensitivity in classification, prognostic stratification and early detection. miRNAs could contribute to hitting the mark, or at least to come nearer, by virtue of their cancer-specific expression and stability. Indeed, different to other RNA classes, miRNAs can be detected and quantified not only in frozen tissues, but also in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as well as serum/plasma samples. Thus, miRNA studies… 
The Application of MicroRNAs in Cancer Diagnostics
New emerging classes of nonc coding RNAs, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), with potential as cancer biomarkers are described, which could be used in combination with miRNAs in molecular diagnostic tests in the future.
Micro-RNAs as Potential New Molecular Biomarkers in Oncology: Have They Reached Relevance for the Clinical Imaging Sciences?
S Sophisticated clinical imaging biomarkers for cancer detection and monitoring should now been correlatively applied to further validate the potential of miRNAs as oncologic biomarker for the clinic.
Diagnostic applications of cell-free and circulating tumor cell-associated miRNAs in cancer patients
Recently, miRNA-expression profiling in primary tumors has yielded promising results. However, establishing miRNA expression in the circulation probably has advantages over determination in primary
Applications of MicroRNAs in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Lung Cancer.
This review focuses on application of miRNA-based biomarkers to help classify lung cancer, application of the miRNA biomarkers for the early detection of Lung cancer, and use of miRNAs as biomarker to predict outcomes of lung cancer.
Integrating contextual miRNA and protein signatures for diagnostic and treatment decisions in cancer
  • L. Sempere
  • Biology
    Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • 2011
The challenges and opportunities for integration of miRNA-based assays in the clinical toolkit to improve care and management of patients afflicted with solid tumors will be discussed.
Micromarkers 2.0: an update on the role of microRNAs in cancer diagnosis and prognosis
An update on cancer diagnostic and prognostic microRNAs is presented, novel tools for prognosticmicroRNAs identification are discussed, and the possible translation of these discoveries to the clinic is evaluated.
Pancreatic cancer diagnosis by free and exosomal miRNA.
  • M. Zöller
  • Biology
    World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology
  • 2013
By their crosstalk with host cells, which includes binding-initiated signal transduction, as well as reprogramming target cells via the transfer of proteins, mRNA and miRNA exosomes are suggested to become a most powerful therapeutics.
Role of microRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinical perspective
By exploiting tumor-specific expression of miRNA, efforts have been aimed at improving targeting of tumor cells by replicative oncolytic viruses while sparing normal cells and anti-miRNA oligonucleotides and miRNA mimics have been found to have antitumor activity.
Biomarkers in colorectal cancer: Current clinical utility and future perspectives
The aim of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence on the possible use of genetic or epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in CRC patients.
The potential of circulating cell free RNA as a biomarker in cancer
There is still a long way to go before an extensively use of ccfRNA biomarkers in cancer patients can be realized, so research should concentrate on developing novel methods to preserve the stability of cCFmRNA and standardization of the protocol which includes extraction, detection, and multicenter validation.


MicroRNAs accurately identify cancer tissue origin
The effectiveness of miRNAs as biomarkers for tracing the tissue of origin of cancers of unknown primary origin is demonstrated and the utility of the miRNA biomarkers by quantitative RT-PCR is validated.
Circulating microRNAs as stable blood-based markers for cancer detection
It is shown here that miRNAs are present in human plasma in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity and established the measurement of tumor-derived mi RNAs in serum or plasma as an important approach for the blood-based detection of human cancer.
Diagnostic and prognostic implications of microRNAs in human hepatocellular carcinoma
The authors have demonstrated the diagnostic miRNA profile for HCC, and for the first time, identified the miR‐125b with predictive significance for H CC prognosis.
miR-34a as a prognostic marker of relapse in surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as promising prognostic markers in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) since they play an important role in oncogenesis. The miR-34 family is composed of three
MicroRNA polymorphisms: the future of pharmacogenomics, molecular epidemiology and individualized medicine.
A classification of miRNA polymorphisms/mutations is suggested for the first time to describe the importance and implications of miR-polymorphisms in gene regulation, disease progression, pharmacogenomics and molecular epidemiology.
Characterization of microRNAs in serum: a novel class of biomarkers for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases
It is demonstrated that miRNAs are present in the serum and plasma of humans and other animals such as mice, rats, bovine fetuses, calves, and horses, and can serve as potential biomarkers for the detection of various cancers and other diseases.
MicroRNA signatures in human ovarian cancer.
The results indicate that miRNAs might play a role in the pathogenesis of human EOC and identify altered miRNA gene methylation as a possible epigenetic mechanism involved in their aberrant expression.
Differential expression of microRNAs in plasma of patients with colorectal cancer: a potential marker for colorectal cancer screening
MiR-92 is significantly elevated in plasma of patients with CRC and can be a potential non-invasive molecular marker for CRC screening, and upregulated both in plasma and tissue samples.
MicroRNA Expression in Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus: Associations with Survival
Evaluated miRNAs involved in major histologic types of esophageal carcinoma and uncover significant associations with prognosis were independent of tumor stage or nodal status, cohort type, and chemoradiation therapy.