Video-assisted endonasal endoscopic surgery is used for a constantly increasing number of indications, replacing more invasive external approaches. Indications include chronic bacterial and fungal sinusitis, nasosinus polyposis, mucocele, inverted papilloma, and lacrimal duct stenosis. This microinvasive technique offers the advantage of preserving the physiological properties of the mucosa while assuring proper ventilation of the nasal and sinus cavities. We discuss the technical basis of this new surgical option used by ear-nose-throat specialists and maxillofacial surgeons. We focus on turbinai, septal, maxillary, and lacrimal surgery but do not discuss the more specific rhinology areas such as ethmoidectomy, sphenoidotomy or frontal surgery. The main procedures are described together with indications and expected results.