Microholography of Living Organisms

  title={Microholography of Living Organisms},
  author={Johndale C. Solem and George C. Baldwin},
  pages={229 - 235}
By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources that are currently under development, it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of elementary biological structures in the living state at precisely defined instants. For optimum contrast, sensitivity, and resolution, the hologram should be made with x-rays tuned to a resonance of nitrogen near 0.3 nanometer. Resolution will then be limited mainly by the hydrodynamic expansion that occurs while the necessary number of photons… 
Feasibilityof imaging living cells at subnanometer resolutionsbyultrafastX-raydiffraction
Detailed structural investigations on living cells are problematic because existing structural methods cannot reach high resolutions on non-reproducible objects. Illumination with an ultrashort and
Subnanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter.
This experiment demonstrates that with intense ultrafast pulses, structural damage does not occur during the pulse, giving credence to the concept of diffraction imaging of single macromolecules.
Possibilities for X-Ray Holography Using Synchrotron Radiation
Since the theoretical [36.1] and experimental [36.2,3] demonstrations of the effectiveness of soft x rays in imaging biological material there has been considerably study [36.4,5] given to the
Experiments in x-ray holographic microscopy using synchrotron radiation
We report on experiments in x-ray holographic microscopy using a storage-ring x-ray source. Holograms of various simple objects in the size range 0.5–12 μm have been recorded by using 0.4-keV x rays
Soft‐X‐Ray Microscopes
Biologists have long dreamed of a microscope capable of imaging specimens in their natural state, at molecular or near‐molecular resolution. Physicists have for some years known that the soft‐x‐ray
X-ray holograms at improved resolution: a study of zymogen granules.
With a recently developed x-rays source based on an undulator on an electron storage ring, and high resolution x-ray resist, a hologram has been recorded at about 400-angstrom resolution, which is higher than that of the light microscope.
X-ray microscopy using FELs: possibilities and challenges
X-ray microscopy is often discussed as one of the experiments that would benefit from the development of x-ray free-electron lasers. We outline the source characteristics required for several
Molecular imaging using X-ray free-electron lasers.
New techniques for determining the structure of systems that cannot be crystallized and for studying the time-resolved behavior of irreversible reactions at femtosecond timescales are now available.
Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser
Theory predicts1,2,3,4 that, with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample
Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction
The successful recording and reconstruction of diffraction patterns from biological samples reported here represent an important step toward the potential of imaging single biomolecules at near-atomic resolution by combining single-particle diffraction with x-ray free electron lasers.


The possibilities of X‐ray holographic microscopy *
This work has shown that the focal depth of holographic techniques is known to be high, owing to their peculiar property of post-focusing in the reconstruction stage.
X-Ray Holographic Microscopy
X-ray holograms of two- or three-dimensionally distributed objects are recorded and reconstructed. The in-line holograms of a line-like object of a chemical fiber and a point-like object of red blood
A Study in Diffraction Microscopy with Special Reference to X-Rays
The factors which affect resolution in diffraction microscopy are studied. The inequality pλ>4nd/N is a necessary condition for making good holograms, where p is the distance between source and film,
High-resolution soft x-ray microscopy.
A high-resolution scanning electron microscope with a short-focal-length final lens, operating in the "low-loss" mode, is used to make the smallest features in the x-ray replica visible.
A New Microscopic Principle
An improvement of the resolution by one decimal wotild require a correction of the objective to four decimals, a practically hopeless task.
Experiments with Fourier transform holograms using 4.48 nm X-rays
Experiments were performed to record Fourier transform holograms with carbon Kalpha X-rays at 4.48 nm. Attempts were made to reconstruct the object from the holograms with He-Ne laser light. The
Microscopy by reconstructed wave-fronts
  • D. Gabor
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1949
The subject of this paper is a new two-step method of optical imagery. In a first step the object is illuminated with a coherent monochromatic wave, and the diffraction pattern resulting from the
Wavefront Reconstruction with Continuous-Tone Objects*
Holograms and high-quality reconstructions have been made by using a two-beam interferometric technique. The extraneous twin image and other interfering terms have been eliminated. Two types of
Image Reconstruction with Fraunhofer Holograms
The holograms considered are formed from opaque or transparent diffracting objects which are contained in an aperture illuminated with a coherent, collimated, quasimonochromatic beam of light. It has
The characterization of x‐ray photocathodes in the 0.1–10‐keV photon energy region
A method and an instrument are described for the measurement of the absolute quantum yield for front‐surface and transmission photocathodes in the 0.1–10‐keV photon energy region. The total and the