Microglial activation involved in morphine tolerance is not mediated by toll-like receptor 4

@article{Fukagawa2012MicroglialAI,
  title={Microglial activation involved in morphine tolerance is not mediated by toll-like receptor 4},
  author={Hiroshi Fukagawa and Tomohiro Koyama and Masahiro Kakuyama and Kazuhiko Fukuda},
  journal={Journal of Anesthesia},
  year={2012},
  volume={27},
  pages={93-97}
}
Morphine is a powerful analgesic but its effect is often diminished owing to the development of tolerance. It has been suggested that morphine activates microglia through its action on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the spinal cord, leading to suppression of the morphine effect. However, it has not been examined whether the development of morphine tolerance is affected by the deletion and mutation of the TLR4 gene. Mice were treated with morphine (60 mg/kg) or vehicle once daily for five… CONTINUE READING

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