Recent studies have shown that morphine modulates the function of glia cells through both opioid receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. However, the mechanism by which morphine regulates neuronal disorders through the alteration of microglia activity remains unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that both l-morphine and its synthetic stereoenantiomer, d-morphine, an ineffective opioid receptor agonist, significantly reduced LPS- or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity with similar efficacy, indicating a nonopioid receptor-mediated effect. In addition, using reconstituted neuron and glia cultures, subpicomolar concentrations of morphine were found to be neuroprotective only in the presence of microglia, and significantly inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators from LPS-stimulated microglia cells. Mechanistic studies showed that both l- and d- morphine failed to protect dopaminergic neurons in cultures from NADPH oxidase (PHOX) knockout mice and significantly reduced LPS-induced PHOX cytosolic subunit p47(phox) translocation to the cell membrane by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that morphine, even at subpicomolar concentrations, exerts potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects either through the inhibition of direct microglial activation by LPS or through the inhibition of reactive microgliosis elicited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. Furthermore, our study reveals that inhibition of PHOX is a novel site of action for the mu-opioid receptor-independent effect of morphine.