Microcantilevers (MCLs) hold a position as a cost-effective and highly sensitive sensor platform for medical diagnostics, environmental analysis and fast throughput analysis. MCLs are unique in that adsorption of analytes on the microcantilever (MCL) surface changes the surface characteristics of the MCL and results in bending of the MCL. Surface stress due to conformation change of proteins and other polymers has been a recent focus of MCL research. Since conformational changes in proteins can be produced through binding of anylates at specific receptor sites, MCLs that respond to conformational change induced surface stress are promising as transducers of chemical information and are ideal for developing microcantilever-based biosensors. The MCL can also potentially be used to investigate conformational change of proteins induced by non-binding events such as post-translational modification and changes in temperature or pH. This review will provide an overview of MCL biosensors based on conformational change of proteins bound to the MCL surface. The models include conformational change of proteins, proteins on membranes, enzymes, DNA and other polymers.