It is nowadays generally accepted that the microbiome is a central driver of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases based on observations from human patients as well as inflammatory rodent models. Many studies focussed on different aspects of microbiota and some scientists believe that a primary dis-balance results in a direct microbial induced inflammatory situation. It is also clear that the microbiome is influenced by environmental and genetic factors and is also tightly regulated by host defense molecules such as antimicrobial peptides (defensins et al.). Different lines of investigations showed different complex antimicrobial barrier defects in inflammatory bowel diseases which also influence the composition of the microbiome and generally impact on the microbial-mucosal interface. In this review, we aim to discuss the bigger picture of these different aspects and current views and conclude about therapeutic consequences for future concepts beyond anti-inflammatory treatment.