Microbiological, Biological, and Chemical Weapons of Warfare and Terrorism

@article{Greenfield2002MicrobiologicalBA,
  title={Microbiological, Biological, and Chemical Weapons of Warfare and Terrorism},
  author={R. Greenfield and L. Slater and M. Bronze and B. Brown and Rhett L Jackson and J. Iandolo and J. B. Hutchins},
  journal={The American Journal of the Medical Sciences},
  year={2002},
  volume={323},
  pages={326–340}
}
&NA; Microbiological, biological, and chemical toxins have been employed in warfare and in terrorist attacks. In this era, it is imperative that health care providers are familiar with illnesses caused by these agents. Botulinum toxin produces a descending flaccid paralysis. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B produces a syndrome of fever, nausea, and diarrhea and may produce a pulmonary syndrome if aerosolized. Clostridium perfringens ∈‐toxin could possibly be aerosolized to produce acute pulmonary… Expand
Medical aspects of bio-terrorism.
TLDR
Biotoxins are very wide and bioterrorism is a heath and security threat that may induce national and international problems and the security authorities, health professional and even public should be aware of biotoxins. Expand
Toxins as biological weapons for terror—characteristics, challenges and medical countermeasures: a mini-review
TLDR
This review focuses on category A and B bio-terror toxins recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulinum neurotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, and ricin. Expand
Bacterial protein toxins as biological weapons
TLDR
This chapter focuses on three bacterial protein toxins that are included in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) select agents and toxins list: botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a Category A agent; staphylococcal enterotoxin; and epsilon toxin from Clostridium perfringens, a Category B agent; and examines their potential as biological weapons. Expand
Foodborne Bacteria: Potential Bioterrorism Agents
TLDR
This chapter discusses the bacterial species causing food poisoning in the context of a potential bioterrorist attack, and reviews in a concise manner their morphological and biochemical characteristics, as well as the treatment and possible prevention measures. Expand
Chemical and Biological Warfare
TLDR
In the current era, the term ‘chemical warfare’ has been extended to apply to, among other actions, the use of herbicides to destroy foliage on a large-scale basis. Expand
Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?
TLDR
The pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries are outlined. Expand
Toxins of concern to animals and people.
TLDR
By discussing exposure routes, clinical signs and differential diagnoses the authors demonstrate how veterinarians are in a unique position to recognise zoonotic diseases, toxin exposure, and acts of bioterrorism. Expand
The Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin as a Bioterrorism Weapon
TLDR
This critical review considers the present literature and tries to position stress on understanding this organism and this poison in its rightful place as AN agent of goodly concern to be used in act of terrorism attacks. Expand
Forensic Aspects of Biologic Toxins
TLDR
This chapter focuses on four bio-threat toxins and their forensic aspects, and how environmental and patient sampling followed by serologic testing is likely to provide the greatest amount of forensic information. Expand
Protein biotoxins of military significance.
TLDR
By developing effective medical protection and treatment against the most likely chemical and mid-spectrum threat agents, the effects of such agents in a war scenario or following a terrorist attack can be reduced. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 97 REFERENCES
Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard.
TLDR
The need to assess the affect of a suspected teratogen on maternal toxicity in laboratory animals is emphasized, as evidence of an association between lung cancer and mustard gas encountered on the battlefields of World War I is at best suggestive if not problematical. Expand
Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: implications for health care providers and community emergency planning.
Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated.Expand
Hydroxocobalamin: improved public health readiness for cyanide disasters.
TLDR
To effectively prepare for a cyanide disaster, the United States must investigate, adopt, manufacture, and stockpile hydroxocobalamin to prevent needless morbidity and mortality. Expand
Clinical features and management of cyanide poisoning.
TLDR
Cyanide poisoning is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and immediate and aggressive treatment and the mainstays of therapy are 100% oxygen and specific antidotes to cyanide. Expand
The toxicology of chlorine.
TLDR
In all industrial applications of chlorine, occupational exposures to chlorine should be controlled to at least the recommended exposure standard, however, a focus of activity on ensuring that excursions above these values do not occur is likely to be more beneficial. Expand
Sulfur mustard: its continuing threat as a chemical warfare agent, the cutaneous lesions induced, progress in understanding its mechanism of action, its long-term health effects, and new developments for protection and therapy.
TLDR
The recent development of a topical skin protectant for SM and for other chemical warfare agents may have broad applications within dermatology, and new findings related to the effects of SM on the basement membrane zone will increase the understanding of the pathophysiology of the lesions caused by SM. Expand
Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.
TLDR
Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene, while Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. Expand
ARDS after accidental inhalation of zinc chloride smoke
Five soldiers were injured by inhalation of hexite smoke (ZnCl2) during military training. Two soldiers, not wearing gas masks breathed hexite for 1 or 2 min, they slowly developed severe adultExpand
Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United States. New facts and old misconceptions.
TLDR
The proportion of outbreaks attributable to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A through E has changed, with enterotoxin A being the only toxin incriminated during the last three years of this review. Expand
Treatment of chemical and biological warfare injuries: insights derived from the 1984 Iraqi attack on Majnoon Island.
TLDR
The Majnoon Island experience has shown the value of prevention, when possible, and decontamination, of both casualties and equipment, and the prompt implementation of general treatment strategies, as well as specific antidotes, are paramount for the successful management of patients after a chemical weapons attack. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...