Topics from this paper
Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Multiple Sclerosis: The Jury is Still Out
- MedicineFront. Immunol.
The current knowledge on MAIT cell biology in health and disease is described, the possible mechanisms behind their role in MS are discussed, and the specific features of this new non-conventional T cell subset make it an interesting candidate as a biomarker or as the target of immune-mediated intervention.
Multiple Sclerosis and T Lymphocytes: An Entangled Story
- Biology, MedicineJournal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology
The migration of activated T lymphocytes from the periphery into the CNS has been identified as a crucial step in the formation of MS lesions and several factors promote such T cell extravasation including: molecules implicated in the T cell-blood brain barrier interaction, and chemokines produced by neural cells.
Environmental Factors and Their Regulation of Immunity in Multiple Sclerosis
- BiologyTranslational Neuroimmunology in Multiple Sclerosis
[Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Problem Statement and Prospects].
- MedicineVestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk
The scientists of the biggest Russian neurological centre, Research Centre of Neurology (Moscow), developed a <<vaccine>> for immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis, studied pathomorphosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, specified the components of its pathogenesis and improved the programs of pathogenetic therapy.
Does the Gut Microbiota Influence Immunity and Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis Pathophysiology?
- Medicine, BiologyJournal of immunology research
EAE, as an animal model of MS, indicates a strong influence of the gut microbiota on the immune system and shows that disturbances in gut physiology may contribute to the development of MS.
T cell responses in the central nervous system
- MedicineNature Reviews Immunology
The main mechanisms that are involved in the priming and CNS recruitment of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cell and regulatory T cells are highlighted and the plasticity of T cell responses in the CNS is considered, with a focus on viral infection and autoimmunity.
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Mechanisms used to explain the association of autoimmunity and virus infection are molecular mimicry, bystander activation, and viral persistance, which are discussed in the context of multiple sclerosis, myocarditis, and diabetes.
Proinflammatory T-cell responses to gut microbiota promote experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
It is revealed that the intestinal microbiota profoundly impacts the balance between pro- and antiinflammatory immune responses during EAE and suggest that modulation of gut bacteria may provide therapeutic targets for extraintestinal inflammatory diseases such as MS.
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- Biology, MedicineNature Reviews Immunology
Exogenous PAMPs and endogenous danger signals from necrotic cells bind to pattern recognition receptors (including Toll-like receptors) and activate signalling pathways in innate immune cells and in T cells, leading to pro-inflammatory cytokine production and T cell activation, which are now considered to be major factors in the development of autoimmunity.
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The aim of this review is to compile models that exhibit spontaneous organ-specific autoimmunity and explore their use for studying MS.
Proinflammatory Bacterial Peptidoglycan as a Cofactor for the Development of Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of Immunology
Staphylococcus aureus PGN as a single component can support the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice, an animal model for MS, and indicates that PGN-mediated interactions result in proinflammatory stimulation of Ag-specific effector functions, which are important in the development of EAE.