Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity

  title={Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity},
  author={Ruth E. Ley and Peter James Turnbaugh and Samuel Klein and Jeffrey I. Gordon},
Two groups of beneficial bacteria are dominant in the human gut, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we show that the relative proportion of Bacteroidetes is decreased in obese people by comparison with lean people, and that this proportion increases with weight loss on two types of low-calorie diet. Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications. 
Gut Microbiota and Obesity
Experimental data in animal and observational studies in obese patients suggest that obesity is associated with substantial changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota, and probiotics and prebiotics can modulate obesity-host metabolism in obesity and obesity-related disorders.
Gut Microbiota and Obesity.
Intestinal microbiota is composed by symbiotic innocuous bacteria and potential pathogens also called pathobionts and exceeds the size of the human nuclear genome by 2 orders of magnitude.
The gut microbiota and its potential role in obesity.
The objective of this review is to critically analyze the vast information available on the composition, function and alterations of the gut microbiota in obesity and explore the future prospects of this research area.
Papio spp. Colon microbiome and its link to obesity in pregnancy
Gut microbial communities are critical players in the pathogenesis of obesity. Pregnancy is associated with increased bacterial load and changes in gut bacterial diversity. Sparse data exist
The Biochemical Linkage between Gut Microbiota and Obesity: a Mini Review
The possible biochemical mechanisms through which gut micobiota might impact obesity and fat storage regulations and processing are discussed.
Metabolic Syndrome in Insects Triggered by Gut Microbes
The findings of this study are described and found that metabolic syndrome and symptoms such as obesity and insulin resistance are not restricted to mammals and can be induced by means of a protozoan intestinal infection.
Distinct differences in gut microbial composition and functional potential from lean to morbidly obese subjects
This work aimed to investigate whether the faecal microbial metagenome can explain the variance in several clinical phenotypes associated with morbid obesity.
The Gut Microbiome and Obesity
Modulation of the gut microbiome through diet, pre- and probiotics, antibiotics, surgery, and fecal transplantation has the potential to majorly impact the obesity epidemic.
The Effect of Diet on Gut Microbiota in Humans Living in Different Environments: A Metagenomic Approach
In the twentieth century, knowledge of the gut microbiota was constrained by the ability to describe and study the biological functions of less than a 100 cultivable bacteria, so the genome to functions relation for the vast majority of the authors' commensal was fundamentally ignored.
The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the human gut microbiota is associated with prostate enlargement
It is hypothesized that the gut microbiota plays a role in prostate enlargement and the pathophysiology of the prostate enlargements underlying lower urinary tract symptoms is unknown.


An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest
It is demonstrated through metagenomic and biochemical analyses that changes in the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes affect the metabolic potential of the mouse gut microbiota and indicates that the obese microbiome has an increased capacity to harvest energy from the diet.
Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora
A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to uncultivated species and novel microorganisms, and significant intersubject variability and differences between stool and mucosa community composition were discovered.
Obesity alters gut microbial ecology.
Analysis of the microbiota of genetically obese ob/ob mice, lean ob/+ and wild-type siblings, and their ob/+ mothers, all fed the same polysaccharide-rich diet, indicates that obesity affects the diversity of the gut microbiota and suggests that intentional manipulation of community structure may be useful for regulating energy balance in obese individuals.
Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Distal Gut Microbiome
Using metabolic function analyses of identified genes, the human genome is compared with the average content of previously sequenced microbial genomes and humans are superorganisms whose metabolism represents an amalgamation of microbial and human attributes.
The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage.
It is found that conventionalization of adult germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice with a normal microbiota harvested from the distal intestine of conventionally raised animals produces a 60% increase in body fat content and insulin resistance within 14 days despite reduced food intake.
Evolutionary Biology
▶ A forum for broad syntheses, in-depth treatment and controversial ideas in evolutionary biology ▶ Brings critical reviews, original research and commentaries to greater understanding of the origins
“Animal Cytology and Evolution”
WE were surprised at the content, and still more at the tone, of the review by Prof. C. D. Darlington of M. J. D. White's “Animal Cytology and Evolution”1. In our opinion, it would be unfortunate if
This volume represents a course of lectures delivered for several years to large classes of students who were admitted “without prerequisite” and deals with such topics as problems of population, immigration, and eugenics.