Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: a review

@article{Heaton2008MicrobialCO,
  title={Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: a review},
  author={Joanna Heaton and K. Jones},
  journal={Journal of Applied Microbiology},
  year={2008},
  volume={104}
}
  • J. Heaton, K. Jones
  • Published 1 March 2008
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Applied Microbiology
Consumption of fruit and vegetable products is commonly viewed as a potential risk factor for infection with enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157, with recent outbreaks linked to lettuce, spinach and tomatoes. Routes of contamination are varied and include application of organic wastes to agricultural land as fertilizer, contamination of waters used for irrigation with faecal material, direct contamination by livestock, wild animals and birds and postharvest issues such… 

Chapter 9 – Leafy Vegetables

Coliform bacteria in fresh vegetables: from cultivated lands to consumers

Fresh vegetables normally carry natural non-pathogenic epiphytic microorganisms, but during growth, harvest, transportation and further handling the produce can be contaminated with pathogens from

Isolation and characterization of Enterobacteriaceae species infesting post-harvest strawberries and their biological control using bacteriophages

TLDR
Post-harvest strawberry fruits in punnets available for public consumption were screened for the presence of enteric bacteria in the Sunshine Coast region of Queensland, Australia to indicate that biological control using bacteriophages might be of significant value for the industry targeting to reduce pathogenic loads of bacteria on the fruit.

Nonculturable response of animal enteropathogens in the agricultural environment and implications for food safety.

TLDR
This review challenges the idea that the viable but nonculturable phenomenon that has been proven to occur in plant-associated environments contributes to human pathogen survival and might be correlated with foodborne infection.

Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production

TLDR
It could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in some cases.

Microbiological quality of selected organically-grownfruits and vegetables in Luzon, Philippines

Contamination of pathogenic microorganisms in fruits and vegetables eaten raw was linked to world-wide disease outbreaks.This study aimed to determine the microbial loads of organically-grown produce

Analysis of Pathogenic Microorganism’s Contamination on Organic Leafy Vegetables at Greenhouse in Korea

TLDR
In this study, microbial hygiene control by soil mulching and harvesting tools was more important than difference of cultivation method in production of leafy vegetables.

Potential Hazards of Microbial Contamination Associated with Raw Eaten Salad Vegetables and Fresh Produces

TLDR
The study revealed the potential hazards of raw eaten salad vegetables and suggested the importance of proper lethal treatments before consumption and the need of adoption of hygienic practices by food processors vendors.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 165 REFERENCES

Fitness of human enteric pathogens on plants and implications for food safety.

  • M. Brandl
  • Biology
    Annual review of phytopathology
  • 2006
TLDR
This review describes the epidemiology of produce-associated outbreaks of foodborne disease and presents recently acquired knowledge about the behavior of enteric pathogens on plants, with an emphasis on Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes.

Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with preharvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water.

TLDR
Analysis of association of lettuce seedlings with EHEC O157:H7 strains implicated in lettuce or fruit outbreaks using hydroponic and soil model systems suggests that preharvest crop contamination via contaminated irrigation water can occur through plant roots.

Comparison of Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in the Phyllosphere with That in the Rhizosphere of Spinach and Radish Plants

TLDR
Testing of the ability of this human pathogen to utilize organic compounds that are present in leaf and root exudates and to survive in the plant environment under various conditions revealed that C. jejuni can utilize many organic acids and amino acids available on leaves and roots.

Kinetics and Strain Specificity of Rhizosphere and Endophytic Colonization by Enteric Bacteria on Seedlings of Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula

TLDR
Results show significant strain specificity for plant entry by these strains, including a strong correlation between endophytic colonization and rhizosphere colonization, and significant colonization of lateral root cracks was observed, suggesting that this may be the site of entry into the plant for these bacteria.

Survey for psychrotrophic bacterial pathogens in minimally processed lettuce

TLDR
The pathogenic potential of the Aeromonas isolates in lettuce remains unclear as the roles of the reputed virulence factors of AeromonAs spp.

The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables.

  • M. McMahonI. Wilson
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
    International journal of food microbiology
  • 2001

Incidence of Salmonella on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Affected by Fungal Rots or Physical Injury.

TLDR
Enriched wash from healthy and decayed portions of 341 fruits and vegetables collected in the marketplace and affected by fungal rots were tested for suspected Salmonella appearing as black, hydrogen sulfide-positive colonies onSalmonella-Shigella agar incubated at 37°C, finding no significant differences between injured and uninjured portions.

Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated with Fresh Produce.

  • L. Beuchat
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of food protection
  • 1996
TLDR
Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs are being developed in an effort to minimize the risk of illness associated with consumption of fresh produce, particularly salad vegetables.

A field study of the microbiological quality of fresh produce of domestic and Mexican origin.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival and growth on lettuce is altered by the presence of epiphytic bacteria.

TLDR
Competition observed on the plant may involve one or more nutrients provided by the plant, and a different mechanism may exist between E. coli O157:H7 and W. paucula since commensalism was only observed on foliage, not in the rhizosphere or plant exudate.
...