Microbial Production of Glyceric Acid, an Organic Acid That Can Be Mass Produced from Glycerol

  title={Microbial Production of Glyceric Acid, an Organic Acid That Can Be Mass Produced from Glycerol},
  author={Hiroshi Habe and Yuko Shimada and Toshiharu Yakushi and Hiromi Hattori and Yoshitaka Ano and Tokuma Fukuoka and Dai Kitamoto and Masayuki Itagaki and Kunihiro Watanabe and Hiroshi Yanagishita and Kazunobu Matsushita and Keiji Sakaki},
  journal={Applied and Environmental Microbiology},
  pages={7760 - 7766}
ABSTRACT Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity… 

Change in product selectivity during the production of glyceric acid from glycerol by Gluconobacter strains in the presence of methanol

Results strongly suggest that the observed decrease in GA production by Gluconobacter spp.

Production of D-Glyceric acid from D-Galacturonate in Escherichia coli.

This novel platform represents an alternative for the production of D-glyceric acid, an industrially relevant chemical, that addresses current challenges in using acetic acid bacteria for its synthesis: increasing yield, enantio-purity and biological stability.

Preliminary Evaluation of Glyceric Acid-producing Ability of Acidomonas methanolica NBRC104435 from Glycerol Containing Methanol.

The enantiomeric excess of the GA produced was revealed to be 44%, indicating that this strain converted glycerol to d-GA with a lower enantioselectivity than other acetic acid bacteria, which had 70-99% ee.

Efficient glycerol transformation by resting Gluconobacter cells

This work proposes a novel approach that allows higher productivities, cleaner production, and reduction in water and energy consumption, and demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approach.

Expression and characterization of a class III alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Gluconobacter frateurii in the presence of methanol during glyceric acid production from glycerol.

A comparative transcriptome analysis of Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 was performed to investigate changes in gene expression during GA production from glycerol in the presence of methanol, suggesting that adhC(Gf) in G.frateurii cells functions in the dissimilation of methnol-derived formaldehyde.

Application of Glyceric Acid to Bio-related Functional Materials and Improvement of Microbial Production.

The sodium salt of diacylated GA showed superior surface tension-lowering activity and antitrypsin activity and the glucosyl derivatives of GA showed protective effects against heat-induced protein aggregation.


Using of crude glycerol as a substrate will reduce the cost of products of microbial synthesis and increase the profitability of biodiesel production.

Asymmetric synthesis of d-glyceric acid by an alditol oxidase and directed evolution for enhanced oxidative activity towards glycerol

The successful production of d-glyceric acid based on glycerol via glyceraldehyde in a two-step enzyme reaction with the FAD-dependent alditol oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is demonstrated.

Disruption of the Membrane-Bound Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Encoding Gene Improved Glycerol Use and Dihydroxyacetone Productivity in Gluconobacter oxydans

It was discovered that the G. oxydans mutant ΔadhA, in which the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene (adhA) was disrupted, significantly improved its ability to grow in a higher concentration of glycerol and to produce DHA compared to a wild-type strain.

Directed evolution of alditol oxidase for the production of optically pure D-glycerate from glycerol in the engineered Escherichia coli

The construction of an Escherichia coli engineered strain to produce optically pure D-glycerate by oxidizing glycerol with an evolved variant of alditol oxidase (AldO) from Streptomyces coelicolor is presented.



Biotransformation of glycerol to d-glyceric acid by Acetobacter tropicalis

The enantiomeric composition of the produced GA was d-glyceric acid (d-GA), and the productivity of d-GA was enhanced with the addition of both 15% (v/v) glycerol and 20 g/l yeast extract.

Biotransformation of glycerol into 1,3-propanediol

Today, glycerol is mainly a by-product of fat splitting and biodiesel production. Further growth of the biodiesel market would result in a fall in the price of glycerol. Particularly glycerol-water

Glycerol: a promising and abundant carbon source for industrial microbiology.

Non-fermentative pathways for synthesis of branched-chain higher alcohols as biofuels

This strategy uses the host’s highly active amino acid biosynthetic pathway and diverts its 2-keto acid intermediates for alcohol synthesis to achieve high-yield, high-specificity production of isobutanol from glucose.

Respiratory chains and bioenergetics of acetic acid bacteria.

Complete genome sequence of the acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans

The genome project revealed the unique biochemistry of G. oxydans with respect to the process of incomplete oxidation and revealed many membrane-bound dehydrogenases that are critical for the incomplete oxidation of biotechnologically important substrates.

5-Keto-d-Gluconate Production Is Catalyzed by a Quinoprotein Glycerol Dehydrogenase, Major Polyol Dehydrogenase, in Gluconobacter Species

The gene disruption experiment and the reconstitution system of the purified enzyme in this study clearly showed that the production of 5-keto-d-gluconate in G. suboxydans is solely dependent on the quinoprotein glycerol dehydration, the major polyol dehydrogenase involved in the oxidation of almost all sugar alcohols in Gluconobacter sp.

Glycerol inhibition of growth and dihydroxyacetone production byGluconobacter oxydans

The kinetic study and modelization of the inhibition effect of glycerol on DHA production allows to fill the gap in the fundamental knowledge of this industrial fermentation, to show the maladjustment of the classical fermentation process used (batch), and to reconsider the conception for the optimization of the production (proposition of more adapted process like fed-batch and/or biphasic systems).