Microbial Extremophiles at the Limits of Life

  title={Microbial Extremophiles at the Limits of Life},
  author={Elena V. Pikuta and Richard B. Hoover and Jane S Tang},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Microbiology},
  pages={183 - 209}
Prokaryotic extremophiles were the first representatives of life on Earth and they are responsible for the genesis of geological structures during the evolution and creation of all currently known ecosystems. Flexibility of the genome probably allowed life to adapt to a wide spectrum of extreme environments. As a result, modern prokaryotic diversity formed in a framework of physico-chemical factors, and it is composed of: thermophilic, psychrophilic, acidophilic, alkaliphilic, halophilic… 
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity in hydrothermal continental systems.
A characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that populate terrestrial hydrothermal systems are made andMicrobial mats are complex associations of microorganisms that help the colonization of more extreme systems.
Psychrophilic and Psychrotolerant Microbial Extremophiles in Polar Environments
The psychrophilic lithoautotrophic homoacetogen isolated from the deep anoxic trough of Lake Untersee is an ideal candidate for life that might inhabit comets or the polar caps of Mars.
Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications
The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophile and their hydrolases are presented, and their use for industrial applications is discussed.
Perspectives and Application of Halophilic Enzymes
These poly extremophiles are excellent source of enzymes and metabolites possessing inherent ability to function in extreme conditions viz high salt, alkaline pH and facilitating catalysis for biotechnological application in food processing, industrial bioconversion and bioremediation.
Living at the Frontiers of Life: Extremophiles in Chile and Their Potential for Bioremediation
Interestingly, the remarkable adaptative capabilities of extremophiles convert them into an attractive source of catalysts for bioremediation and industrial processes.
The Multifaceted Life of Microbes: Survival in Varied Environments
The world of microorganisms comprises a vast diversity of living organisms, each with its individual set of genes, cellular components, and metabolic reactions that interact within the cell and
Adaptivity of Archaeal and Bacterial Extremophiles
Psychrophilic heterotrophic bacteria respond to sublethal temperature decrease by increased conformational flexibility of the macromolecules and elevated content of unsaturated fatty acids in the composition of their membrane lipids, which increase the growth rate.
Properties and Applications of Extremozymes from Deep-Sea Extremophilic Microorganisms: A Mini Review
In the present review, recent advances in research regarding deep-sea extremophiles and the enzymes they produce are introduced and their potential industrial applications are discussed, with special emphasis on thermophilic, psychrophilic, halophilic and piezophilic enzymes.


Biology of extremophilic and extremotolerant methanotrophs
Basic knowledge of other stress protectants, as well as bioenergetic and genetic aspects of methanotroph adaptation, is still lacking and is necessary for better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the versatility of methnotrophs and for the development of novel biotechnological processes.
Extremophiles as a source for novel enzymes.
Growth of the facultative anaerobes from Antarctica, Alaska, and Patagonia at low temperatures
Experimental data is presented for psychrotolerant, non spore-forming, facultative anaerobes isolated from geographically different cold regions of the authors' planet and the growth response on changing from anaerobic conditions to aerobic with cultivation at low temperatures.
Anaerobic Chemotrophic Alkaliphiles
This work has attempted to describe an alkaliphilic microbial community as a trophic system by isolating representatives of the key functional groups, and resulted in the discovery of a number of new genera belonging to different phylogenetic branches.
Hyperthermophiles and their possible potential in biotechnology
Environmental diversity of bacteria and archaea.
The development of molecular phylogenetics has recently enabled characterization of naturally occurring microbial biota without cultivation, and the breadth and extent of extant microbial diversity has become much clearer.
Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles
The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species and the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons is considered.
Extremophiles: developments of their special functions and potential resources.
  • S. Fujiwara
  • Biology, Engineering
    Journal of bioscience and bioengineering
  • 2002
Novel energy metabolism in anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea: a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway.
Bioenergetic Aspects of Halophilism
  • A. Oren
  • Biology
    Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
  • 1999
SUMMARY Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities.