Microbial Exopolymers Link Predator and Prey in a Model Yeast Biofilm System

  title={Microbial Exopolymers Link Predator and Prey in a Model Yeast Biofilm System},
  author={Lydia-Marie Joubert and Gideon M. Wolfaardt and Alfred Botha},
  journal={Microbial Ecology},
Protistan grazing on biofilms is potentially an important conduit enabling energy flow between microbial trophic levels. Contrary to the widely held assumption that protistan feeding primarily involves ingestion of biofilm cells, with negative consequences for the biofilm, this study demonstrated preferential grazing on the noncellular biofilm matrix by a ciliate, with selective ingestion of yeast and bacterial cells of planktonic origin over attached and biofilm-derived planktonic cells… 
Biofilm-derived Planktonic Cell Yield: A Mechanism for Bacterial Proliferation
The development of biofilms at solid-liquid interfaces has been investigated extensively, whereas the yield of planktonic cells from biofilms has received comparatively little attention. The
Synergistic Interactions within a Multispecies Biofilm Enhance Individual Species Protection against Grazing by a Pelagic Protozoan
The results show that synergistic interactions between the four-species were important to induce biofilm formation, and suggest that bacterial members that produce more biofilm when exposed to the grazer not only protect themselves but also supported other members which are sensitive to grazing, thereby providing a “shared grazing protection” within theFour-species biofilm model.
Cryptococcal Traits Mediating Adherence to Biotic and Abiotic Surfaces
The unique traits and mechanisms favoring adhesion of Cryptococcus spp.
Biofilm Formation by Cryptococcus neoformans Under Distinct Environmental Conditions
These studies suggest that conditions similar to those observed in its natural habitat may be conducive to biofilm formation by C. neoformans.
Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms
A rapid, reproducible and sensitive approach for quantitative screening of biofilm formation by bacteria when cultivated as monoand multispecies biofilms, based on the Nunc-TSP lid system and crystal violet staining is reported.
Planktonic cell yield is linked to biofilm development.
It is shown that biofilms yield cells to the environment soon after initial surface contact; the extent of this yield is dependent on biofilm development, which in turn is influenced by environmental parameters such as bulk-liquid flow rates and nutrient availability.
Biofilm formation at warming temperature: acceleration of microbial colonization and microbial interactive effects
Increasing the temperature of river water might lead to faster biofilm recolonization after disturbances, with a distinct biofilm community structure that might affect the trophic web.
Biofilms: The Good and the Bad
  • S. Yadav, S. Sanyal
  • Biology, Engineering
    Biofilms in Human Diseases: Treatment and Control
  • 2019
It is noted that the judicious use of biofilms can provide solutions to modern day problems and provide cost-effective alternatives in the mining industry in the form of bioleaching and biofilm-based bioreactors for municipal/industrial waste disposal.
Biogels in Soils: Plant Mucilage as a Biofilm Matrix That Shapes the Rhizosphere Microbial Habitat
Mucilage is a gelatinous high-molecular-weight substance produced by almost all plants, serving numerous functions for plant and soil. To date, research has mainly focused on hydraulic and physical
Biofilm Formation by Cryptococcus neoformans.
This chapter discusses the recent advances in the understanding of cryptococcal biofilms, including the role of its polysaccharide capsule in adherence, gene expression, and quorum sensing in biofilm formation.


Planktonic-Cell Yield of a Pseudomonad Biofilm
TheseBiofilm-detached cells were more sensitive to a commercial biocide than associated biofilm- and chemostat-cultivated populations, implying that detached biofilm cells exhibit a character that is distinct from that of attached and planktonic cell populations.
Multicellular Organization in a Degradative Biofilm Community
Spatial relationships among members of the community were distinctive to diclofop-grown biofilms, and unique consortial relationships indicated that syntrophic interactions may be necessary for optimal degradation of dicLofop methyl and other chlorinated ring compounds.
Microbial exopolymers provide a mechanism for bioaccumulation of contaminants
It is demonstrated that microbial exopolymers can play an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in natural systems and direct transfer and accumulation of the contaminants in protozoa.
Relevance of microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs)--Part I: Structural and ecological aspects.
  • H. Flemming, J. Wingender
  • Biology
    Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
  • 2001
The EPS matrix is a dynamic system, constructed by the organisms and responding to environmental changes, that enables the cells to function in a manner similar to multicellular organisms.
Biofilm formation and phenotypic variation enhance predation-driven persistence of Vibrio cholerae.
The results provide a mechanistic explanation for the adaptive advantage of surface-associated growth in the environmental persistence of V. cholerae and suggest an important contribution of protozoan predation in the selective enrichment of biofilm-forming strains in the out-of-host environment.
Predation as a shaping force for the phenotypic and genotypic composition of planktonic bacteria
Current knowledge on bacterial phenotypic properties which affect their vulnerability towards grazers are summarised, and experimental evidence demonstrating that this phenotypesic heterogeneity results in shifts of bacterial community composition during enhanced protist grazing pressure is reviewed.
Microcolonies, quorum sensing and cytotoxicity determine the survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms exposed to protozoan grazing.
Both the formation of microcolonies and the production of toxins are effective mechanisms that may allow P. aeruginosa biofilms to resist protozoan grazing and to persist in the environment.
Chemoattraction of a bactivorous ciliate to bacteria surface compounds
The recognition and response to material normally found on the surface of prey cells supports evidence for the involvement of chemical sensing of gradients of prey particles and dissolved compounds of prey origin in the natural swimming behavior of bacterivorous ciliates.
Impact of Protozoan Grazing on Bacterial Community Structure in Soil Microcosms
The composition ofprotozoan communities is important for the effect of protozoan grazing on bacterial communities, and size-selective feeding may explain some but not all of the changes in bacterial community structure.
Off the hook--how bacteria survive protozoan grazing.