Microaggressions Toward Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Genderqueer People: A Review of the Literature

  title={Microaggressions Toward Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Genderqueer People: A Review of the Literature},
  author={Kevin L. Nadal and Chassitty N. Whitman and Lindsey S. Davis and Tanya Erazo and Kristin C. Davidoff},
  journal={The Journal of Sex Research},
  pages={488 - 508}
Microaggressions are subtle forms of discrimination, often unconscious or unintentional, that communicate hostile or derogatory messages, particularly to and about members of historically marginalized social groups. While Sue’s (2010a, 2010b) microaggression theory formed its foundation in studies based on racial microaggressions, the following review summarizes microaggression literature to date, as it pertains to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and genderqueer (LGBTQ) people… Expand
A Decade of Microaggression Research and LGBTQ Communities: An Introduction to the Special Issue
This special issue aims to further Microaggression Theory by providing theoretical and empirical papers that focus on the manifestation and impact of microaggressions on LGBTQ people. Expand
Patterns of transgender microaggressions in friendship: the role of gender identity
ABSTRACT Microaggressions are brief verbal, behavioural or environmental slights that communicate hostility or offence. Microaggressions that come from an individual’s friends can be seen as moreExpand
Intersectional Microaggressions and Social Support for LGBTQ Persons of Color: A Systematic Review of the Canadian-Based Empirical Literature
Abstract Researchers have documented that LGBTQ persons of Color in the United States of America experience intersectional microaggressions and social support from their family and community members.Expand
Measuring LGBTQ Microaggressions: The Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) and the Gender Identity Microaggressions Scale (GIMS)
The Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) and the Gender Identity Microagressive Scale (GIMS) are introduced to empirically explore the multifaceted experiences of microaggression toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) people and transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people. Expand
Bisexual Women’s Experience of Microaggressions and Microaffirmations: A Community-Based, Mixed-Methods Scale Development Project
The development of the BMMS-W responds to calls to examine the distinctiveness of bisexual women’s experience and gives mental health service providers and researchers a tool to better understand their experiences. Expand
Subtle and Severe: Microaggressions Among Racially Diverse Sexual Minorities
This phenomenological study chronicles the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24–65 years of age, to find implications for the development of interventions that can serve clinicians in their therapeutic work with microaggressed sexual minorities across racial diversity. Expand
“Not a Real Family”: Microaggressions Directed toward LGBTQ Families
Thematic analysis revealed that LGBTQ family microaggressions were salient to individuals across multiple family roles, and three specific themes emerged: family legitimacy, conflicts with family values, and gender violation within family. Expand
Overlooked and Invisible: Everyday Experiences of Microaggressions for LGBTQ Adolescents
Participants’ experiences of microaggressions reflected complex forms of discrimination emerging from the intersections of sexual and gender identity. Expand
Exploring the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Sign Language Interpreters Working in the Video Relay Service Setting
This phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) sign language interpreters who have worked in the video relay service setting –Expand
Navigating Microaggressions, Overt Discrimination, and Institutional Oppression: Transgender and Gender Nonconforming People and the Criminal Justice System
The purpose of this chapter is to uncover how transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people perceive and experience the criminal justice (CJ) system. The chapter focuses primarily on the typesExpand


Transgender microaggressions in the context of friendship: Patterns of experience across friends’ sexual orientation and gender identity.
Microaggressions are subtle forms of discrimination that occur daily and can manifest as behavioral, verbal, or environmental slights. Whether intentional or unintentional, these microaggressionsExpand
Sexual Orientation Microaggressions: Processes and Coping Mechanisms for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals
Previous literature on microaggressions has suggested that oppressed groups including lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are affected by overt discrimination. However, there has been littleExpand
Measuring multiple minority stress: the LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale.
A three-phase, mixed method empirical study to assess microaggressions among LGBT-POC, finding that men scored higher on the LGBT-PCMS than women, lesbians and gay men scoredHigher than bisexual women and men, and Asian Americans scored higher than African Americans and Latina/os. Expand
‘Just a little hint’: bisexual-specific microaggressions and their connection to epistemic injustices
It is posited that differences in prejudicial experiences do exist for bisexual groups, and that such differences reside in the realms of the epistemic, yet have very real implications for bisexual women's daily lived experiences. Expand
Revisiting the Invisibility of (Male) Bisexuality: Grounding (Queer) Theory, Centering Bisexual Absences and Examining Masculinities
The article draws upon research published in the Journal of Bisexuality since the author's 2001 article to make observations about bisexuality research and about continuing sex and gender differencesExpand
Sexual Orientation Microaggressions: “Death by a Thousand Cuts” for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth
In recent years, there has been a growth of literature examining the mental health impacts of microaggressions, which are defined as subtle forms of discrimination toward oppressed groups. TheExpand
Sexual Orientation Microaggressions and the Experience of Sexual Minorities
This qualitative study sought to confirm and expand on previous research on sexual orientation microaggressions—subtle discrimination in the form of verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights andExpand
Emotional, Behavioral, and Cognitive Reactions to Microaggressions: Transgender Perspectives
In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature focusing on microaggressions, or subtle forms of discrimination, toward people of color; women; people with disabilities; andExpand
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Physicians' Experiences in the Workplace
It appears that medical schools and health care workplaces continue to ignore LGBT issues and operate in discriminatory fashion far too often. Expand
The Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (REMS): construction, reliability, and validity.
  • Kevin L. Nadal
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of counseling psychology
  • 2011
Analysis indicate that the REMS is a valid measure of racial microaggressions, as evidenced by high correlations with existing measures of racism and participants' feedback. Expand