Cholangiocytes, the cells lining bile ducts, comprise a small fraction of the total cellular component of the liver, yet perform the essential role of bile modification and transport of biliary and blood constituents. Cholangiopathies are a diverse group of biliary disorders with the cholangiocyte as the target cell; the etiopathogenesis of most cholangiopathies remains obscure. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. These small RNAs may not only be involved in the etiopathogenesis of disease, but are showing promise as diagnostic and prognostic tools. In this brief review, we summarize recent work regarding the role of microRNAs in the etiopathogenesis of several cholangiopathies, and discuss their utility as prognostic and diagnostic tools.