MicroRNAs as effectors of brain function with roles in ischemia and injury, neuroprotection, and neurodegeneration.

  • Julie A Saugstad
  • Published 2010 in
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism…

Abstract

MicroRNAs are small RNAs that function as regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression. MicroRNAs are encoded by genes, and processed to form ribonucleoprotein complexes that bind to messenger RNA (mRNA) targets to repress translation or degrade mRNA transcripts. The microRNAs are particularly abundant in the brain where they serve as effectors of neuronal development and maintenance of the neuronal phenotype. They are also expressed in dendrites where they regulate spine structure and function as effectors in synaptic plasticity. MicroRNAs have been evaluated for their roles in brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury, and in functional recovery after ischemia. They also serve as mediators in the brain's response to ischemic preconditioning that leads to endogenous neuroprotection. In addition, microRNAs are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Huntington, Parkinson, and Prion disease. The discovery of microRNAs has expanded the potential for human diseases to arise from genetic mutations in microRNA genes or sequences within their target mRNAs. This review discusses microRNA discovery, biogenesis, mechanisms of gene regulation, their expression and function in the brain, and their roles in brain ischemia and injury, neuroprotection, and neurodegeneration.

DOI: 10.1038/jcbfm.2010.101
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@article{Saugstad2010MicroRNAsAE, title={MicroRNAs as effectors of brain function with roles in ischemia and injury, neuroprotection, and neurodegeneration.}, author={Julie A Saugstad}, journal={Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism}, year={2010}, volume={30 9}, pages={1564-76} }