Micro-needle-based electro tactile display to present various tactile sensation

@article{Kitamura2015MicroneedlebasedET,
  title={Micro-needle-based electro tactile display to present various tactile sensation},
  author={Norihide Kitamura and Norihisa Miki},
  journal={2015 28th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)},
  year={2015},
  pages={649-650}
}
In prior work, micro-needle electrodes were developed, however they could only stimulate the tactile receptors that located very close to the surface and therefore, they could only present stinging sensation. We developed a newly electrotactile display which has a micro-needle electrode array and a counter flat electrode. The display can stimulate all the tactile receptors, which resulted in even lower voltage required to tactile stimulation and successful display of various tactile sensation.