Mice Deficient in both Pituitary Adenylyl Cyclase-activating Polypeptide and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Survive, but Display Growth Retardation and Sex-dependent Early Death


Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are two closely related neuropeptides exhibiting overlapping activities which have actions on almost every organ system of the body. To determine if these peptides exert essential but redundant functions, we interbred VIP- and PACAP-deficient mice to obtain VIP… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s12031-008-9085-3


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