Methylisothiazolinone: second ‘epidemic’ of isothiazolinone sensitization

@article{Gameiro2014MethylisothiazolinoneS,
  title={Methylisothiazolinone: second ‘epidemic’ of isothiazolinone sensitization},
  author={Ana Gameiro and In{\^e}s Coutinho and Leonor Ramos and Margarida Gonçalo},
  journal={Contact Dermatitis},
  year={2014},
  volume={70}
}
Isothiazolinones are used as biocides in a wide variety of products, such as cosmetics, detergents, and industrial products. In the 1980s, a formulation with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) was responsible for an allergic contact dermatitis ‘epidemic’. To control this phenomenon, a maximum allowed dose was set. However in 2005, MI alone was introduced in cosmetics, and this was followed by a new ‘epidemic’ of sensitization to MI and MCI/MI (1). We performed a… Expand
[Isothiazolinones as causal factors of contact allergy epidemics in the 20th and 21st centuries].
TLDR
To counteract the increasing problem of contact allergy epidemic to MI, the recommendations have been developed, suggesting the ban on the use of MI in "leave-on" cosmetics and maximum concentration of 15 ppm in "rinse-off" products. Expand
Isothiazolinone derivatives and allergic contact dermatitis: a review and update
TLDR
The epidemiology of contact allergy to different isothsiazolinones, clinical presentation of isothiazolinone‐induced ACD, most relevant sensitization sources and potential cross‐reactions between isoth Diazolinone derivatives are reviewed, and an update on recent legislative measures is provided. Expand
Contact allergy caused by methylisothiazolinone: the Belgian-French experience
TLDR
This unprecedented outbreak of contact sensitization to a preservative agent in Europe, and beyond, should have alerted the authorities much sooner and meanwhile the need for safer use concentrations of MI in cosmetics, detergents and industrial products is becoming more urgent every day. Expand
Methylisothiazolinone in rinse‐off products: additional fuel to the world epidemics of allergic contact dermatitis to isothiazolinones
  • M. Gonçalo
  • Medicine
  • The British journal of dermatology
  • 2015
TLDR
Documentation of ACD from repeated exposure to MI in rinse-off products suggests that even after very short repeated exposures some chemicals penetrate the stratum corneum, bind skin proteins and accumulate in the skin, reaching the threshold epidermal concentration to initiate the innate and adaptive immune responses responsible for ACD. Expand
The epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone—An analysis of Danish consecutive patients patch tested between 2005 and 2019
TLDR
A regulation of Annex V in the European Union in 2017 banned the use of MI in leave‐on cosmetics and reduced the allowed concentration in rinse‐off products. Expand
Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone and Methylisothiazolinone Allergy
TLDR
There is a similar prevalence of MI allergy in a Bangkok dermatology clinic as those reported in European centers such in the United Kingdom. Expand
Multicenter Patch Testing With Methylisothiazolinone and Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group
TLDR
The contact allergy to MI and/or MCI/MI could explain or contribute to dermatitis in more than 60% of the MI-allergic patients, and methylisothiazolinone of 2000 ppm needs to be patch tested on its own to not miss contact allergy. Expand
Ex vivo human skin permeation of methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI)
TLDR
Overall results show that MI in formulations or in aqueous standard solutions quickly permeated the skin with time lags less than 15 min while MCI was much slower (>3.5 h); this confirms that MCI reacts readily with skin and may induce local irritation. Expand
Concomitant contact allergies to formaldehyde, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone, and fragrance mixes I and II
Contact allergies to the preservatives formaldehyde and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI) have been reported to appear together at a statistically significant level.Expand
Quality control in Mohs micrographic surgery
  • R. Motley
  • Medicine
  • The British journal of dermatology
  • 2015
TLDR
Documentation of ACD from repeated exposure to MI in rinse-off products suggests that even after very short repeated exposures some chemicals penetrate the stratum corneum, bind skin proteins and accumulate in the skin, reaching the threshold epidermal concentration to initiate the innate and adaptive immune responses responsible for ACD. Expand
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Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review
TLDR
Repeated exposure to MI showed that many patients allergic to MI reacted to 50 ppm which is half the maximum permitted concentration of MI in cosmetics, which could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. Expand
Whilst Rome Burns: The Epidemic of Contact Allergy to Methylisothiazolinone
TLDR
In Europe a rise in contact allergy to MCI/MI, the only isothiazolinone patch tested in the baseline series, has been observed, and similar figures are being observed all over Europe, with alerts particularly during late 2012 in France and Belgium at the REVIDAL. Expand
Methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a new ‘epidemic’
The authors discuss the European epidemic of contact dermatitis caused by methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone.
Airborne and systemic dermatitis, mimicking atopic dermatitis, caused by methylisothiazolinone in a young child
A case study is presented of a 4-year old child with papular dermatitis caused by methylisothiazolinone in wipes and paint.