Methoxychlor as a model for environmental estrogens.

  title={Methoxychlor as a model for environmental estrogens.},
  author={Audrey M. Cummings},
  journal={Critical reviews in toxicology},
  volume={27 4},
  • A. Cummings
  • Published 1 July 1997
  • Biology, Chemistry
  • Critical reviews in toxicology
Estrogens can have a variety of physiological effects, especially on the reproductive system. Chemicals with estrogenic activity that are present in the environment may thus be considered potentially hazardous to development and/or reproduction. Methoxychlor is one such chemical, a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide with proestrogenic activity. Metabolism of the chemical either in vivo or using liver microsomes produces 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)- 1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), the active… 

Effects of Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals on Female Reproductive Health

Evidence of the effects of estrogen-mimicking EDCs on female reproductive health especially the ovaries and uteri is presented and exposures during fetal and neonatal periods cause developmental reprogramming leading to adult reproductive disease.

Assessment of the effects of metabolism on the estrogenic activity of xenoestrogens: a two-stage approach coupling human liver microsomes and a yeast estrogenicity assay.

A two-stage approach can distinguish the estrogenic activity of a suspect chemical from the activity due to its more, or less, active metabolites and will aid in the evaluation of novel xenoestrogens and, more importantly, proestrogens.

Methoxychlor metabolites may cause ovarian toxicity through estrogen-regulated pathways.

It is suggested that MXC metabolites inhibit follicle growth and induce atresia and that ER-regulated pathways may mediate the ovarian toxicity of MXC and its metabolites.

Transient inhibitory effect of methoxychlor on testicular steroidogenesis in rat: an in vivo study

Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, has been reported to induce reproductive abnormalities in male reproductive tract. To get more insight into the mechanism(s) of gonadal toxicity provoked by

Effects of endocrine disruptors in the development of the female reproductive tract.

It is suggested that endocrine disruptors could account for the higher-than-expected increase in the prevalence of some non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, thyroid diseases, and some cancers.

Effects of xenoestrogens on the differentiation of behaviorally-relevant neural circuits

Perinatal Exposure to Methoxychlor Affects Reproductive Function and Sexual Behavior in Mice

Results show that MXC impacts reproductive outcomes, and it is shown that both males and females showed deficits in mate preference tests.



Role of hepatic monooxygenases in generating estrogenic metabolites from methoxychlor and from its identified contaminants.

It was shown that the mono- and bis-OH metabolites of MDDE and of methoxychlor were active estrogens and that the order of activity, either by the above procedure or in terms of relative binding affinity to rat uterine cytosolic receptor, was as follows.

Estrogenic activities of chlorinated hydrocarbons.

Some DDT analogs are estrogenic, particularly o,p'-DDT, which comprises approximately 15-20% of the commercial DDT mixture, and it is probable that phenolic metabolites are responsible for its estrogenic activity.

Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic.

It is shown that a number of alkylphenolic compounds, used in a variety of commercial products and found in river water, are estrogenic in fish, birds, and mammals and capable of stimulating vitellogenin gene expression in trout hepatocytes, gene transcription in transfected cells, and the growth of breast cancer cell lines.

Methoxychlor regulates rat uterine estrogen-induced protein.

It is concluded that MXC action parallels that of estradiol on the induction and regulation of the estrogen-induced protein in immature rat uterus, and the induction by MXC is time- and dose-dependent.

Effects of pesticides and related compounds on steroid metabolism and function.

  • D. Kupfer
  • Biology
    CRC critical reviews in toxicology
  • 1975
The studies reviewed were selected to describe those investigations that could provide mechanistic-biochemical interpretations for the effects of pesticides on steroid-mediated biological functions.