Methods for identification of images acquired with Digital cameras


From the court we receive questions if it is possible to determine if an image has been made with a specific digital camera. This question has to be answered in child pornography cases, where evidence is needed that a certain picture has been made with a specific camera. We have looked into different methods of examining the cameras for determining if a specific image has been made with a camera: defects in CCDs, file formats that are used, noise introduced by the pixel arrays and watermarking in images used by the camera manufacturer. It appeared that in The cheaper ranges of cameras there are visible errors in the pixel arrays. The more expensive cameras have better CCDs with fewer errors. The errors can be visualized by averaging the images multiple times. This was visualized with cameras of the brand Trust. Depending on the amount of compression that has been used, these errors remain visible. We have not recovered any identification method for the Mavica Camera of Sony. There exists information about the settings in the files; however, we could not find a serial number or watermarking in the images. A different noise level has been measured between two Sony Mavica cameras.

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@inproceedings{Geradts2000MethodsFI, title={Methods for identification of images acquired with Digital cameras}, author={Zeno J. M. H. Geradts and Jurrien Bijhold and Martijn Kieft and Kenji Kurosawa and Kenro Kuroki and Naoki Saitoh}, year={2000} }