The article makes a review of achievements in the sphere of biotechnology and genetic engineering as far as military medicine is concerned. A special attention is drawn on diagnostic capacities of molecular genetic methods which analyse DNA and RNA objects. Principles of modern diagnostical methods are described which are based on molecular hybridization of nucleic acids with a use of specific DNA probes or polymerize chain reaction (PCR). The advantages of the latter are shown in the comparison with immunochemical methods. Peculiarities of new quantitative PCR modifications are studied. The article contains data concerning the use of DNA probes and PCR for estimation of radiation injuries and during formation of maximal tolerance level of physical and chemical influence.