Newborn Screening for Homocystinuria Revealed a High Frequency of MAT I/III Deficiency in Iberian Peninsula.
Methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency (MAT I/III deficiency) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting in isolated hypermethioninemia, and usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, although a dominant form has been reported in several families.During the last 6 years, approximately 520,000 newborns were screened in the Portuguese Newborn Screening Laboratory by MS/MS, and 21 cases of persistent hypermethioninemia were found. One case was confirmed to be a deficiency of cystathionine β-synthase and 20 cases were confirmed by MAT1A gene analysis to have an elevation of methionine due to MAT I/III deficiency, which indicates an incidence for this condition of 1/26,000. Twelve of the MAT I/III deficient newborns, belonging to 11 families, were identified in the northern region of Portugal and sent to the same treatment center, where they are under follow-up. Clinical, biochemical, and genetic characteristics of individuals from these 11 families are presented. Plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations were found to be moderately increased in all newborns, and molecular analysis revealed that they all were heterozygous for R264H mutation. Normal growth, development, and neurological examination were observed in all cases, and cerebral MRI performed in six cases revealed myelination abnormalities in one case. Plasma methionine concentration for all 12 cases was always below 300 μM, and they are all on a normal diet for their age.