Metformin: New Preparations and Nonglycemic Benefits

  title={Metformin: New Preparations and Nonglycemic Benefits},
  author={Yoshihito Fujita and Nobuya Inagaki},
  journal={Current Diabetes Reports},
Metformin has been widely used for over 5 decades. New preparations have been developed for possible enhancement of efficiency, tolerability, and pleiotropic nonglycemic effects. Extended-release metformin has contributed to adherence and improved gastrointestinal tolerability. Delayed-release metformin acts in the lower gastrointestinal tract and exerts glucose-lowering effects at lower plasma metformin levels, which might suggest use of this biguanide in patients with chronic kidney disease… 

Metformin: clinical use in type 2 diabetes

With no long-term studies comparing it against newer glucose-lowering drugs, some of which have more robust evidence for cardioprotection, metformin’s established role as ‘foundation therapy’ in type 2 diabetes may justifiably be challenged.

Understanding the glucoregulatory mechanisms of metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Despite its position as the first-line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the mechanisms underlying the plasma glucose level-lowering effects of metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide) still

Optimizing diabetes treatment in the presence of obesity

The authors review medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus that also have weight loss as a side effect and discuss glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, neuroendocrine peptide hormones, alpha-glUCosidase inhibitors, and metformin.

Metformin Used for Weight Loss by Non-Diabetic Sudanese Females

It is concluded that women who used Metformin over the counter had a good experience with it especially when combined with diet and exercise.

Clinical efficacy of metformin combined with lifestyle intervention for treatment of childhood obesity with hyperinsulinemia

Metformin combined with lifestyle intervention can more effectively treat obese children with hyperinsulinemia, improving insulin resistance.

Metformin extended-release versus metformin immediate-release for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

AIM To compare the efficacy and tolerability metformin extended-release (MXR) and the conventional metformin immediate-release (MIR) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) METHODS: PubMed,

Time course and dose effect of metformin on weight in patients with different disease states

Within the metformin dose range from 21 RCTs, no significant dose–response relationship was observed, however, the time–course relationship is obvious for efficacy of met formin on weight.




  • A. AnabtawiJ. Miles
  • Medicine
    Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • 2016
Evidence that metformin is safe in patients with HF and associated with a reduction in newly incident HF and in HF mortality is found; there is evidence that individuals with CKD-3, who are at increased cardiovascular risk, stand to benefit from meetformin therapy.

Metformin: an old but still the best treatment for type 2 diabetes

The role of metformin in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes is reviewed, its potential role for a variety of insulin resistant and pre-diabetic states, obesity, metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV disease, gestational diabetes, cancer, and neuroprotection are discussed.

Metformin and the gastrointestinal tract

It is believed that metformin response and tolerance is intrinsically linked with the gut, and how this can affect the efficacy of meetformin treatment in the individual, and contribute to the side effects associated with met formin intolerance.

The “slower” the better

Metformin is primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes, but it is also beneficial in the treatment of other metabolic diseases such as the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and the non alcoholic fat liver disease (NAFLD).

Novel Gut-Based Pharmacology of Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

It is found that metformin withdrawal was associated with a reduction of active and total GLP-1 and elevation of serum bile acids, especially cholic acid and its conjugates, which reversed when meetformin was restarted.

Assessment of efficacy and tolerability of once-daily extended release metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Patients switched to extended release metformin XR derived the same clinical and metabolic benefits as for standard metform in hospital based outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus but with reduced dosage, fewer gastrointestinal side effects and a greater sense of well being and satisfaction on medication.

Metformin improves healthspan and lifespan in mice

It is shown that long-term treatment with metformin starting at middle age extends healthspan and lifespan in male mice, while a higher dose (1% w/w) was toxic.

Gastrointestinal tolerability of extended-release metformin tablets compared to immediate-release metformin tablets: results of a retrospective cohort study

In this retrospective chart review, patients switched from immediate-release metformin to met formin-XR experienced fewer GI side effects on comparable doses of the extended-release meetformin.

Repurposing metformin for cancer treatment: current clinical studies

The role of metformin as a potential cancer treatment is reviewed to critically review the results of a small number of completed trials.

Metformin in women with PCOS, Pros

Although this drug should not be used as a first-line treatment for ovulatory dysfunctions in adult women with PCOS, there are data supporting the suggestion that in many cases pretreatment with metformin may favor ovulatory response to clomiphene citrate.