• Corpus ID: 9245663

Metered dose pressurized aerosols and the ozone layer.

  title={Metered dose pressurized aerosols and the ozone layer.},
  author={Stephen P. Newman},
  journal={The European respiratory journal},
  volume={3 5},
  • S. Newman
  • Published 1 May 1990
  • Chemistry
  • The European respiratory journal
The term "aerosol" has a precise scientific definition as liquid or solid particles suspended in air [1], but has in the last few decades acquired a new non-scientific meaning as a self-contained, sprayable product in which the propellant force is supplied by liquefied gas [2]. The propellants used in these aerosol canisters are of several types, namely: a) chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); b) hydrocarbons, such as propane and isobutane; c) mixtures of CFCs and hydrocarbons, which are used in many… 
The ideal drug delivery system: a look into the future.
  • J. Aiache
  • Engineering
    Journal of aerosol medicine : the official journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine
  • 1991
The pulverisation can also be obtained by the pressure of a classical propellant onto an aluminum or plastic bag and the dispersion is achieved by means of a regulator which is positioned into the valve.
Rationale for the choice of an aerosol delivery system.
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  • Biology
    Journal of aerosol medicine : the official journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine
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Inhalation devices, including spacers, dry-powder inhalers, breath-actuated MDIs and, more recently, piezo-electric devices, have been shown to increase lung deposition of drugs in poor coordinators but they all have limitations, which may affect their clinical efficacy.
Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosol therapy with pressurised metered-dose inhalers through plastic spacers.
In vitro output of particles in the respirable range from HFA-pMDIs was significantly higher than that from CFC-p MDIs using various spacers and electrostatic charge in plastic spacers remains the key determinant limiting delivery of salbutamol from a pMDI through spacers, and can be reduced by soaking the spacer in a household detergent.
Efficient delivery to the lungs of flunisolide aerosol from a new portable hand-held multidose nebulizer.
The multidose nebulizer delivers an unusually high percentage of an aerosol dose to the lungs, and it "targets" flunisolide to the lung more effectively than the MDI.
Moving from CFC Aerosol to HFA Aerosol or Dry Powder Inhalers: What Do Patients Think?
Concerns about the acceptability of reformulated CFC-free aerosol inhalers are ill founded, however, if given the choice, many patients prefer a DPI over the HFA inhaler, and the transition offers an opportunity to review patients' current treatment and the proficiency of their inhaling technique.
Bioequivalence o of iinhaled d drugs
Generic CFC inhalers and new delivery systems, such as dry powder or CFCfree, pressurized inhalers, have been introduced or are currently under development, and standardized methods to demonstrate bioequivalence of orally or parenterally administered drugs are developed.
The importance of the device in asthma therapy
The in vivo variability in lung deposition obtained with Turbuhaler is lower than with pMDI, indicating that the performance of Turb uhaler is less dependent on patient competence, which represents an important step forward in the effective management of asthma.


Pressurized aerosol versus jet aerosol delivery to mechanically ventilated patients. Comparison of dose to the lungs.
This trial shows significantly greater efficiency of aerosol deposition to the lung in ventilator-dependent patients when using an MDI plus aerosol holding chamber than when using a jet nebulizer.
Deposition and clinical efficacy of terbutaline sulphate from Turbuhaler, a new multi-dose powder inhaler.
Results suggest that both the distribution of drug and the clinical effect of terbutaline sulphate delivered from Turbuhaler are similar to those from a pressurised metered dose inhaler (MDI).
Arterial blood levels of fluorocarbons in asthmatic patients following use of pressurized aerosols
The predicted myocardial concentrations of fluorocarbon in man are much less than the levels shown to sensitize the heart of conscious normal dogs to epinephrine.
Aerosolized metaproterenol in the treatment of asthmatics with severe airflow obstruction. Comparison of two delivery methods.
The bronchodilator response to metaproterenol delivered by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a spacer device (Aerochamber [A]) and by jet nebulizer was studied in 44 asthmatic patients who presented to
Comparative efficacy of salbutamol by pressurized aerosol and wet nebulizer in acute asthma.
Detailed analysis of the data according to a theoretical dose-response relationship showed that the nebulizer-aerosol increment was unrelated to asthma severity.
Clinical comparison of inhaled budesonide delivered either via pressurized metered dose inhaler or Turbuhaler®
Budesonide via Turbuhaler was at least as effective and safe as budesonide via a pressurized MDI at daily doses of 800 and 1,600 μg and was significantly more appreciated than MDI in all questions of preference.
Effects of "loop" diuretics on ion transport by dog tracheal epithelium.
Results suggest that the site of action of these drugs is on a basolateral linked Na-Cl entry process, and further evidence for such a linked entry process was provided by experiments in which removal of Cl reduced Na influx and removal of Na reduced Cl influx.
Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atomc-atalysed destruction of ozone
Chlorofluoromethanes are being added to the environment in steadily increasing amounts. These compounds are chemically inert and may remain in the atmosphere for 40–150 years, and concentrations can
Regulation of salt and water transport across airway mucosa.
It seems reasonable to suggest that neurohumoral control mechanisms may switch from sodium and fluid absorption to chloride and fluid secretion, and vice versa.
Inhibition of adenosine 5'-monophosphate- and methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma by inhaled frusemide.
Inhaled frusemide may serve as a functional antagonist against a smooth muscle spasmogen, such as methacholine, possibly by augmenting prostanoid generation and its more potent activity against AMP and other bronchoconstrictor stimuli suggests an additional action on mast cell functions possibly at the level of the Ca++/Mg(++)-ATPase.