Metallurgy: High nickel release from 1- and 2-euro coins

@article{Nestle2002MetallurgyHN,
  title={Metallurgy: High nickel release from 1- and 2-euro coins},
  author={Frank O. Nestle and Hannes Speidel and Markus O. Speidel},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2002},
  volume={419},
  pages={132-132}
}
The amount of nickel is regulated in European products that come into direct and prolonged contact with human skin because this metal may cause contact allergy, particularly hand eczema. Here we show that 1- and 2-euro coins induce positive skin-test reactions in sensitized individuals and release 240–320-fold more nickel than is allowed under the European Union Nickel Directive. A factor contributing to this high release of nickel is corrosion due to the bimetallic structure of these coins… 
Reactivity to euro coins and sensitization thresholds in nickel‐sensitive subjects
TLDR
The clinical relevance of nickel‐containing coins with regard to nickel dermatitis is a matter of debate, although there is evidence that the nickel released from the coins affects some nickel‐sensitive subjects through occupational exposure.
Contamination by nickel, copper and zinc during the handling of euro coins
TLDR
It is shown that pre‐existing metallic species present on the surface of the coins are the major source of contamination during manipulation, and that friction inherent to everyday usage contributes predominantly to their transfer to the hands.
High Nickel Release from 1- and 2-Euro Coins: Are There Practical Implications?
TLDR
Results show that positive patch test reactions to euro coins can be obtained from nickel-sensitized individuals after 48 h of application to the palmar skin under occlusion, and do not contradict other experiments in which repeated handling of coins was unable to provoke fingertip allergic contact dermatitis.
Nickel Release from Euro and Polish Coins: a Health Risk?
The role of contact with nickel-containing coins has been controversial. The aim of our study was to compare the release of nickel from Euro (1 and 2) coins and from Polish coins (2 PLN and 5 PLN) at
Corrosion and elution of harmful metals from metal buttons
TLDR
Three different textile accessories were tested for metal leaching and the results have shown that the limits prescribed by international standards were much exceeded.
Nickel release from nickel particles in artificial sweat
TLDR
Nickel release from particles was influenced by the surface composition, the active surface area for corrosion, particle size, and loading, and released increased with increasing particle loading.
Determination of allergy-causing metals from coins
The majority of everyday items contain metals and their alloys, although many of them may be harmful to human health. Nickel, originating from different sources such as coins, jewelry, or buttons,
Nanoparticles reduce nickel allergy by capturing metal ions.
TLDR
It is shown that applying a thin layer of glycerine emollient containing nanoparticles of either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate on an isolated piece of pig skin and on the skin of mice prevents the penetration of nickel ions into the skin.
Flux of a Nickel(II) Salt versus a Nickel(II) Soap across Human Skin in vitro
TLDR
The rates of diffusion measured through dermatomed skin are higher than those heretofore measured through full-thickness skin, epidermal tissue or stratum corneum, and the cause for the pronounced immune response to nickel in contact with the skin appears to lie in amounts retained in the viable skin strata.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-5 OF 5 REFERENCES
Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations: a model for allergic contact dermatitis to nickel on the hands
TLDR
The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure, and standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel‐sensitized subjects are needed.
Textbook of Contact Dermatitis
  • R. Menne
  • Medicine
    Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • 1995
Materials in medicine
TLDR
From society's aim of continuous growth of gross national product, trends emerge towards standardization in foodstuffs, increased production of all goods and services and the total ignoring of their destructive effects on the population and environment.
Allergy to coined money: nickel contact dermatitis in cashiers.
Nickel release from coins
TLDR
It was shown that nickel ions are readily available on the surface of used coins and several μg of nickel salts may be transferred daily onto hands by intense handling of high‐nickel‐releasing coins.