Metallothionein research in terrestrial invertebrates: synopsis and perspectives.

@article{Dallinger1996MetallothioneinRI,
  title={Metallothionein research in terrestrial invertebrates: synopsis and perspectives.},
  author={Reinhard Dallinger},
  journal={Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part C, Pharmacology, toxicology \& endocrinology},
  year={1996},
  volume={113 2},
  pages={
          125-33
        }
}
  • R. Dallinger
  • Published 1996
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part C, Pharmacology, toxicology & endocrinology
While most of metallothionein research during the past years has been carried out on mammals or vertebrates, only relatively few studies have been directed towards invertebrates. Even fewer investigations have focussed on terrestrial invertebrates. The best studied metallothioneins and/or metallothionein genes among terrestrial invertebrates are those from an insect species (Drosophila melanogaster), a nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and some terrestrial gastropods (Helix pomatia, Arianta… Expand
Structure and function of metallothionein isoforms in terrestrial snails
Terrestrial gastropods have long been known to avidly accumulate trace elements such as copper, zinc and cadmium in their soft tissues [1,2]. It has been suggested that this extraordinaryExpand
Responsiveness of metallothionein and hemocyanin genes to cadmium and copper exposure in the garden snail Cornu aspersum
TLDR
It is found that the CuMT and CaH ɑD genes exhibit an organ‐specific transcriptional upregulation in the midgut gland of Cu‐exposed snails, indicating possible interrelationships between the metal‐selective activity of snail MT isoforms and the synthesis and metabolism of Hc isoforms. Expand
CADMIUM DETOXIFICATION IN PROTISTS
TLDR
The primary structure revealed that the equivalent proteins from the two species have identical sequences and that the two isoforms differ only in the presence or absence of a lysine residue at the N-terminus, suggesting that the proteins originate by gene duplication. Expand
Metallothionein 2 and Heat Shock Protein 72 Protect Allolobophora chlorotica from Cadmium But Not Nickel or Copper Exposure: Body Malformation and Coelomocyte Functioning
TLDR
It is shown that the dermal exposure to Cu, Ni, and Cd affected the mortality and morphology of A. chlorotica, and the number and functioning of coelomocytes, which are adopted to respond differentially to various heavy metals. Expand
Metallothionein gene expression differs in earthworm populations with different exposure history
TLDR
Exposure time affected expression, but only in the earthworms from the uncontaminated site, suggesting that there is a delay in the metallothionein response of earthworms in this population. Expand
Copper in Helix pomatia (Gastropoda) is regulated by one single cell type: differently responsive metal pools in rhogocytes.
TLDR
In situ hybridization demonstrates that at the cellular level, the Cu-binding MT isoform is exclusively expressed in the so-called pore cells (or rhogocytes), which can be found in all major snail organs and form a second, quickly inducible, and more easily available pool of the metal that serves Cu regulation by responding to superphysiological metal exposure. Expand
Spectroscopic characterization of metallothionein from the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia.
TLDR
The Cd-sequestering metallothionein (MT) isoform isolated from the midgut gland of Roman snails exposed to Cd supplements in the feed was characterized by compositional and spectroscopic analysis, suggesting that it serves an important role in the protection of the terrestrial gastropod from Cd. Expand
Caenorhabditis elegans metallothioneins protect against toxicity induced by depleted uranium.
TLDR
It is suggested that these highly homologous proteins may have subtle functional differences and indicate that MTs mediate the response to DU, which is a dense and heavy metal used in armor, ammunition, radiation shielding, and counterbalances. Expand
Variation in metallothionein gene expression is associated with adaptation to copper in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.
TLDR
The results indicate that copper resistance in D. octaedra from contaminated areas is related to an increased expression of metallothionein proteins during experimental exposure to copper contaminated soil. Expand
Disrupted homeostasis in coelomocytes of Eisenia fetida and Allolobophora chlorotica exposed dermally to heavy metals
TLDR
Coelomocyte homeostasis is significantly disrupted, at least transiently, in coelomocytes from earthworms subjected to metal stressors under laboratory conditions, indicating that E. fetida is a reasonable surrogate for soil-dwelling earthworm species in short-duration laboratory-based ecotoxicological tests. Expand
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References

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Abstract Terrestrial gastropods accumulate high amounts of cadmium and zinc. Large proportions of these elements are concentrated in the midgut gland, in which organ the metals can be stored overExpand
Invertebrate organisms as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution
  • R. Dallinger
  • Chemistry, Medicine
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TLDR
Apart from accumulation, many invertebrates exposed to elevated metal concentrations respond to this stress by metal-induced synthesis of metallothioneins, which makes met allothionein a potential biomarker for metal stress in invertebrate animals. Expand
Metallothionein gene duplications and metal tolerance in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.
TLDR
A search for duplications of the Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein gene (Mtn) yielded numerous examples of this type of chromosomal rearrangement that may represent early stages in the evolution of a gene family. Expand
Copper-metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus: potential role as Cu(I) donors to apohemocyanin.
TLDR
The hypothesis that copper(I)-metallothionein may act as a Cu(I) donor to apohemocyanin is tested and it is suggested that the conformational state of hemocyan in is the determining factor in the Cu( I) transfer mechanism. Expand
Metallothionein genes in Drosophila melanogaster constitute a dual system.
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  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1987
TLDR
The metallothionein (MT) cDNA clone from a cadmium-resistant Drosophila melanogaster cell line includes an open reading frame coding for a 43-amino acid protein whose characteristics are a high cysteine content and a lack of aromatic amino acids. Expand
Characterization of metallothionein cDNAs induced by cadmium in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
TLDR
3'-untranslated region of c DNAs of C. elegans MT-I and -II have some consensus sequences found in mammalian MT cDNAs, suggesting that these regions may have some roles in the regulation of MT-gene expression. Expand
Quantification of metallothionein as a biomarker for cadmium exposure in terrestrial gastropods
TLDR
It is proposed that metallothionein quantification in H. pomatia might serve as an integrating biomarker reflecting single or repeated exposure events occurring over a prolonged period of time and for the responsiveness of an invertebrate to metal exposure stress. Expand
Ecotoxicology of Metals in Invertebrates
MARINE ENVIRONMENTS. The Significance of Trace Metal Concentrations in Marine Invertebrates (Philip Rainbow). Cadmium Bioaccumulation in the Scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis from an UnpollutedExpand
The novel metallothionein genes of Caenorhabditis elegans. Structural organization and inducible, cell-specific expression.
TLDR
Two genes (mtl-1 and mtl-2) that encode the novel metallothioneins of Caenorhabditis elegans were cloned and characterized and the activity of each mtl promoter is modulated by metals as well as developmental and environmental factors. Expand
Nucleotide sequence and expression of a Drosophila metallothionein.
TLDR
This cDNA sequence hybridized to a 400-nucleotide polyadenylated RNA whose presence in the cells of the alimentary canal of larvae was stimulated by ingestion of cadmium or copper; in other tissues this RNA was present at much lower levels. Expand
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