Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast

@article{Darbre2006MetalloestrogensAE,
  title={Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast},
  author={Philippa D Darbre},
  journal={Journal of Applied Toxicology},
  year={2006},
  volume={26}
}
  • P. Darbre
  • Published 1 May 2006
  • Chemistry, Medicine, Biology
  • Journal of Applied Toxicology
Many compounds in the environment have been shown capable of binding to cellular oestrogen receptors and then mimicking the actions of physiological oestrogens. The widespread origin and diversity in chemical structure of these environmental oestrogens is extensive but to date such compounds have been organic and in particular phenolic or carbon ring structures of varying structural complexity. Recent reports of the ability of certain metal ions to also bind to oestrogen receptors and to give… 

Cadmium a metalloestrogen: are we convinced?

TLDR
Results of the review indicated that, although the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the oestrogenic properties of cadmium was persuasive, evidence from population‐based human studies remains conflicting.

The importance of environmental exposure on selected xenoestrogens in the pathogenesis of breast cancer

TLDR
The presented paper discusses the role of selected xenoestrogens, such as: bisphenol A, phthalates, parabens or cadmium, as a metalloestrogen, due to their importance in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and their widespread presence in the human environment, as well as drawing attention to the still-present problem of possible chronic environmental or occupational exposure of humans.

The Role of Cadmium and Nickel in Estrogen Receptor Signaling and Breast Cancer: Metalloestrogens or Not?

TLDR
The purpose of this review is to discuss the various epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro studies that show a link between the heavy metals, cadmium and nickel, and breast cancer development.

Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

TLDR
Recently, it was demonstrated that heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsen (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments.

Genotoxicity of cosmetic chemicals in human breast epithelial cells

TLDR
All these compounds studied showed genotoxic activity in MCF10A andMCF10F cells and points to the potential for reduction in exposure as a strategy for breast cancer prevention.

Nanotoxicology and Metalloestrogens: Possible Involvement in Breast Cancer

As the use of nanotechnology has expanded, an increased number of metallic oxides have been manufactured, yet toxicology testing has lagged significantly. Metals used in nano-products include

Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks

TLDR
There is a need to carry out detailed evaluation of the potential for parabens, together with other oestrogenic and genotoxic co‐formulants of bodycare cosmetics, to increase female breast cancer incidence, to interfere with male reproductive functions and to influence development of malignant melanoma.

Environmental oestrogens and breast cancer: evidence for combined involvement of dietary, household and cosmetic xenoestrogens.

TLDR
If exposure to complex mixtures of oestrogenic chemicals in consumer products is a factor in breast cancer development, then a strategy for breast cancer prevention could become possible.

Environmental Pesticides and Heavy Metals — Role in Breast Cancer

TLDR
This chapter will attempt to pull together the actions of pesticides and metalloestrogens as a possible synergistic mechanism by which these toxins may work to promote breast cancer development.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 48 REFERENCES

Environmental oestrogens, cosmetics and breast cancer.

  • P. Darbre
  • Medicine, Biology
    Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • 2006

Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

  • P. Darbre
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of inorganic biochemistry
  • 2005

Endocrine Disruption by Cadmium, a Common Environmental Toxicant with Paradoxical Effects on Reproduction

TLDR
In consideration of the data currently available and in light of the potentially serious consequences of environmental Cd2+ exposure to human reproduction, it is proposed that priority should be given to studies dedicated to further elucidating the mechanisms involved.

Molecular basis of agonism and antagonism in the oestrogen receptor

TLDR
The crystal structures of the LBD of ER in complex with the endogenous oestrogen, 17β-oestradiol, and the selective antagonist raloxifene provide a molecular basis for the distinctive pharmacophore of the ER and its catholic binding properties.

Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells

Structure-activity relationships for a large diverse set of natural, synthetic, and environmental estrogens.

TLDR
An overall picture of how xenoestrogens structurally resemble endogenous 17beta-estradiol and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is provided, which is rationalized into a set of hierarchical rules that will be useful in guidance for identification of potential estrogens.

Estrogen-derived steroidal metal complexes: agents for cellular delivery of metal centers to estrogen receptor-positive cells.

TLDR
A range of metallo-estrogens based on 17alpha-ethynylestradiol are prepared and examined their binding to the ER both as isolated receptor and in whole cell assays (ER positive MCF-7 cells).

Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland

TLDR
Exposure to cadmium increased uterine wet weight, promoted growth and development of the mammary glands and induced hormone-regulated genes in ovariectomized animals, and mimicked the effects of estrogens.

Evaluation of estrogenicity of major heavy metals.

Metal binding sites of the estradiol receptor from calf uterus and their possible role in the regulation of receptor function.

TLDR
The existence of putative metal binding sites on the estradiol receptor (ER) molecule from calf uterus was evaluated by immobilizing various divalent metals to iminodiacetate-Sepharose, indicating that histidine residues on the ER molecule are involved in the interaction with the metal.