Metallization of fluid hydrogen at 140 GPa (1.4 Mbar) by shock compression

  title={Metallization of fluid hydrogen at 140 GPa (1.4 Mbar) by shock compression},
  author={William J. Nellis and Samuel T. Weir and A. Crichton Mitch{\`e}ll},
  journal={Shock Waves},
Abstract. Shock compression was used to produce the first observation of a metallic state of condensed hydrogen. The conditions of metallization are a pressure of 140 GPa (1.4 Mbar), 0.6 g/cm $^3$ (ninefold compression of initial liquid-H $_2$ density), and 3000 K. The relatively modest temperature generated by a reverberating shock wave produced the metallic state in a warm fluid at a lower pressure than expected previously for the crystallographically ordered solid at low temperatures. The… Expand

Figures from this paper

Hydrogen and Helium at Conditions of Giant Planet Interiors
NVT ensemble simulations have been conducted for pure hydrogen and H-He mixtures at primordial concentrations (0.09 helium number fraction) by using the vdW-DF2 exchange-correlation functional forExpand
High bandwidth differential amplifier for shock experiments.
A high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments of low-resistance metals has a bandwidth up to 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ≤1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Expand


Metallization of fluid hydrogen
  • W. Nellis, A. Louis, N. Ashcroft
  • Materials Science, Physics
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 1998
The electrical resistivity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic pressures, densities and temperatures that can be achieved with a reverberating shock wave, and the precise mechanism by which a metallic state might be attained is still a matter of debate. Expand
Metastable solid metallic hydrogen
Abstract Hydrogen reaches the mimimum electrical conductivity of a metal at 140 GPa (1.4Mbar), 0.6g cm−3 (ninefold compression of initial liquid-H2 density) and 3000 K in the fluid phase. The questExpand
Solid hydrogen at 342 GPa: no evidence for an alkali metal
Solid hydrogen, an electrical insulator, is predicted to become an alkali metal under extreme compression, although controversy surrounds the pressure required to achieve this. The electricalExpand
X-ray diffraction and equation of state of hydrogen at megabar pressures
SOLID hydrogen is predicted1,2 to become metallic at high pressures. Although metallization was recently reported in high-pressure shock-wave compression experiments using liquid hydrogen3, effortsExpand
Metallization and Electrical Conductivity of Hydrogen in Jupiter
The data imply that Jupiter should become metallic at 140 gigapascals in the fluid, and the electrical conductivity in the jovian molecular envelope at pressures up to metallization is about an order of magnitude larger than expected previously. Expand
The equation of state of molecular hydrogen at very high densitya)
In the preceding paper new shock‐wave results were reported on liquid hydrogen and deuterium up to a pressure of 76 GPa (760 kbar). In the present paper an effective pair potential is determined fromExpand
Extended infrared studies of high pressure hydrogen.
A new lattice mode is found which may be important for determining the structure of the high pressure A phase of parahydrogen and no evidence for the earlier reported Drude behavior is found within the range of study. Expand
Electronic energy gap of molecular hydrogen from electrical conductivity measurements at high shock pressures.
The semiconducting energy gap derived from the conductivities is 12 eV in good agreement with recent quasiparticle calculations and with oscillator frequencies measured in diamond-anvil cells. Expand
Temperature measurements and dissociation of shock-compressed liquid deuterium and hydrogen.
  • Holmes, Ross, Nellis
  • Materials Science, Medicine
  • Physical review. B, Condensed matter
  • 1995
Temperatures of shock compressed liquid deuterium and hydrogen up to 5200 K were measured at pressures up to 83 GPa (830 kbar) and show evidence for dissociation above 20 GPa. Expand
We have developed a tight-binding model of hydrogen with a single s orbital on each atom that reproduces properties of the dimer, of various crystalline structures, and of the fluid.Expand