Metal-PAH mixtures in the aquatic environment: a review of co-toxic mechanisms leading to more-than-additive outcomes.

  title={Metal-PAH mixtures in the aquatic environment: a review of co-toxic mechanisms leading to more-than-additive outcomes.},
  author={Patrick T Gauthier and Warren P Norwood and Ellie E. Prepas and Greg G. Pyle},
  journal={Aquatic toxicology},
Mixtures of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur ubiquitously in aquatic environments, yet relatively little is known regarding their combined toxicities. Emerging reports investigating the additive mortality in metal-PAH mixtures have indicated that more-than-additive effects are equally as common as strictly-additive effects, raising concern for ecological risk assessment typically based on the summation of individual toxicities. Moreover, the current separation of focus… CONTINUE READING


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