Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Distal Gut Microbiome

@article{Gill2006MetagenomicAO,
  title={Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Distal Gut Microbiome},
  author={Steven R. Gill and Mihai Pop and Robert T. Deboy and Paul B. Eckburg and Peter James Turnbaugh and Buck S. Samuel and Jeffrey I. Gordon and David A. Relman and Claire Fraser-Liggett and Karen E. Nelson},
  journal={Science},
  year={2006},
  volume={312},
  pages={1355 - 1359}
}
The human intestinal microbiota is composed of 1013 to 1014 microorganisms whose collective genome (“microbiome”) contains at least 100 times as many genes as our own genome. We analyzed ∼78 million base pairs of unique DNA sequence and 2062 polymerase chain reaction–amplified 16S ribosomal DNA sequences obtained from the fecal DNAs of two healthy adults. Using metabolic function analyses of identified genes, we compared our human genome with the average content of previously sequenced… 
Metagenomics of the human microbiome
  • S. Shestakov
  • Biology, Engineering
    Biology Bulletin Reviews
  • 2011
TLDR
This review summarizes some of the latest knowledge obtained by the metagenomic analysis of human gut and oral microbiota and concerns mechanisms of microbiome evolution.
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Gut bacteria are not only critical for regulating gut metabolism, but also important for host immune system as revealed by animal studies.
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This review summarises key elements of the human microbiome and its metabolic capabilities within the context of health and disease.
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TLDR
The gene composition of human gut microbiome in a large and deeply sequenced cohort highlighted an overall non-redundant genome size 150 times larger than the human genome.
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TLDR
The Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals are described, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species.
Human gutmicrobiome: the second genomeof human body
TLDR
Gut bacteria are not only critical for regulating gut metabolism, but also important for host immune system as revealed by animal studies.
Application of metagenomics in the human gut microbiome.
TLDR
Functional metagenomics can identify novel functional genes, microbial pathways, antibiotic resistance genes, functional dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome, and determine interactions and co-evolution between microbiota and host, though there are still some limitations.
The Human Microbiome
TLDR
The chapter concludes by highlighting that pathogen discovery efforts will be enhanced by new metagenomics strategies, and these studies may uncover single etiologic agents of infections as well as relative shifts in groups of bacterial pathogens that may contribute to human disease.
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