Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own?

@article{Karpicke2009MetacognitiveSI,
  title={Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own?},
  author={Jeffrey D. Karpicke and Andrew C. Butler and Henry L Roediger III},
  journal={Memory},
  year={2009},
  volume={17},
  pages={471 - 479}
}
Basic research on human learning and memory has shown that practising retrieval of information (by testing the information) has powerful effects on learning and long-term retention. Repeated testing enhances learning more than repeated reading, which often confers limited benefit beyond that gained from the initial reading of the material. Laboratory research also suggests that students lack metacognitive awareness of the mnemonic benefits of testing. The implication is that in real-world… 
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