Transport, metabolism, cytotoxicity and effects of novel taxanes on the cell cycle in MDA-MB-435 and NCI/ADR-RES cells
The novel taxanes SB-T-1102, SB-T-1214 and SB-T-1216 are up to 1000-fold more cytotoxic for resistant tumour cells than clinically used paclitaxel and docetaxel, and the current study has examined the metabolism of these new taxanes in human, rat, pig and minipig liver microsomes. Metabolites were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Metabolic pathways derived from their structures were confirmed by investigating subsequent metabolism of purified metabolites. SB-T-1102, SB-T-1214 and SB-T-1216 were metabolized to 14, 10 and 11 products, respectively. In contrast to docetaxel, side-chain hydroxylation did not occur at their tert-butyl group, but on the isobutyl (SB-T-1102) or isobutenyl (SB-T-1214 and SB-T-1216) chains. Species differences in their metabolism were observed. For example, human and untreated rat microsomes hydroxylated SB-T-1216 preferentially at the side-chain, whereas pig and minipig microsomes preferentially metabolized more at the taxane core. The increased formation of secondary and tertiary metabolites in rat microsomes with high expression of CYP3A1/2 compared with uninduced rats confirmed the role of CYP3A in taxane metabolism. All major products were formed by human cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 and none by CYP1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2C9 and 2E1, indicating the principal role of CYP3A orthologues in SB-T metabolism. The knowledge of metabolic pathways of the examined agents and of their rates of formation is important due to possible metabolic inactivation of these three novel drugs with a great potential for the therapy of taxane-resistant tumours. The relatively slow metabolism of SB-T-1102 could be favourable for its antitumour efficiency in vivo.