Metabolism of ginsenoside R(c) by human intestinal bacteria and its related antiallergic activity.

  title={Metabolism of ginsenoside R(c) by human intestinal bacteria and its related antiallergic activity.},
  author={E. Bae and M. Choo and E. Park and Sun-Young Park and Hoyoung Shin and D. Kim},
  journal={Biological \& pharmaceutical bulletin},
  volume={25 6},
  • E. Bae, M. Choo, +3 authors D. Kim
  • Published 2002
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
When ginsenoside R(c) was anaerobically incubated with human fecal microflora, all specimens metabolized ginsenoside R(c) to compound K and protopanaxadiol. The main metabolite was compound K. Among the bacteria isolated from human fecal microflora, most bacteria, such as Bacteroides sp., Eubacterium sp., and Bifidobacterium sp. potently transformed ginsenoside R(c) to compound K. Bifidobacterium K-103 and Eubacterium A-44 transformed it to compound K via ginsenoside R(d) and Bacteroides HJ-15… Expand
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Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota in People with Different Levels of Ginsenoside Rb1 Degradation to Compound K
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The Possible Role of Intestinal Microflora in Pharmacological Activities of Ginseng
Ginseng, which contains protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol ginsenosides as major constituents, has been used as a herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. When ginseng is orally administered toExpand
Bioactivity and Bioavailability of Ginsenosides are Dependent on the Glycosidase Activities of the A/J Mouse Intestinal Microbiome Defined by Pyrosequencing
Conversion to F2 is the rate-limiting step in bioactivation of primary ginsenosides by A/J mouse intestinal microbiome, whose characterization reveals the presence of certain bacterial families capable of enabling the formation of F2 and C-K in vivo. Expand
Transformation of ginsenoside-rich fraction isolated from ginseng (Panax ginseng) leaves induces compound K
To develop the new physiologically active materials from ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) leaves, the ginsenoside-rich fraction (GL-1) was isolated and transformed into highly absorbableExpand
Human Intestinal Microflora
Most herbal medicines, which have been used in China, Japan, and Korea, are orally administered to human. Therefore, their components are inevitably contacted with intestinal microflora inExpand
Metabolic Activities of Ginseng and Its Constituents, Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1, by Human Intestinal Microflora
Although compound K-forming activity from the aqueous extract of ginseng was low compared to that from ginenoside Rb1, their profiles were similar to those of isolated compounds, and it is believed that the intestinal bacterial metabolic activities of gINSeng components are variable in individuals and may be used as selection markers for responders to ginsENG. Expand
Effects of gut microbiota on the pharmacokinetics of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides Rd, Rg3, F2, and compound K in healthy volunteers treated orally with red ginseng
The gut microbiota may play an important role in the bioavailability of the nonpolar RG ginsenoside–metabolizing activities by affecting the biotransformation of the gINSenosides. Expand
Biotransformation of Panax ginseng extract by rat intestinal microflora: identification and quantification of metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
This is the first report of the identification and quantification of the metabolism and metabolic profile of P. ginseng extract in rat intestinal microflora using LC–MS/MS, and results indicated that the primary metabolites are compound K and Rh1, and the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides were more easily metabolized than protopAnaxatriol-typeGinseng. Expand


Constitutive beta-glucosidases hydrolyzing ginsenoside Rb1 and Rb2 from human intestinal bacteria.
Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rb2 were anaerobically incubated with human intestinal microflora and several kinds of intestinal bacteria hydrolyzed these ginsenosides, causing them to be metabolized to 20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (compound K) and 20(S) - protopanxadiol. Expand
Metabolism of 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 by human intestinal bacteria and its relation to in vitro biological activities.
Ginsenoside Rg3 and its metabolites exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, 20(S)- and 20(R)-protopanaxadiols potently inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori, and 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited H+/K+ ATPase of rat stomach. Expand
Role of human intestinal Prevotella oris in hydrolyzing ginseng saponins.
The results suggest that the metabolism of protopanaxadiol saponins to metabolites I-III in the intestines seems most partly due to intestinal P. oris isolates. Expand
Main ginseng saponin metabolites formed by intestinal bacteria.
Ginseng saponin metabolites produced by human intestinal bacteria and the urinary and blood compounds after oral administration of Ginseng extract and its saponins in human and specific pathogen-freeExpand
In vivo antimetastatic action of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins is based on their intestinal bacterial metabolites after oral administration.
The present study demonstrated in vivo and in vitro antimetastatic activities of a major intestinal bacterial metabolite M1 formed from protopanaxadiol saponins of ginseng in comparison with its whole standardized extract and ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, and Rc. Expand
Appearance of compound K, a major metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 by intestinal bacteria, in rat plasma after oral administration--measurement of compound K by enzyme immunoassay.
Plasma C-K after the oral administration of C- K and G-Rb1 to rats was determined by the established EIA and appeared late and was retained for a long period of time in the plasma after the administration of G- Rb1, which itself is hardly absorbed. Expand
Antitumor activity of a novel ginseng saponin metabolite in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells resistant to cisplatin.
The results suggest that IH-901 is not cross-resistant to CDDP in this cell line and could be a candidate for the treatment of CDDP resistant pulmonary cancer. Expand
Drug Metabolism: Intestinal Bacterial Hydrolysis is Required for the Appearance of Compound K in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng
Ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng root is transformed into compound K via ginsenosides Rd and F2 by intestinal bacterial flora by Eubacterium sp. Expand
Chemical Studies on the Oriental Plant Drugs. XXVIII. Saponins and Sapogenins of Ginseng : Stereochemistry of the Sapogenin of Ginsenosides-Rb1, -Rb2 and -Rc
The sapogenin of Ginseng saponins, ginsenosides-Rb1, -Rb2 and -Rc, was once reported to be protopanaxadiol (III). But it was found recently that dammarane type triperpenes with hydroxyl or methoxylExpand
Studies on absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of ginseng saponins. VII. Comparison of the decomposition modes of ginsenoside-Rb1 and -Rb2 in the digestive tract of rats.
It appears that hydrolysis by beta-glucosidase, which is present in the rat large intestine, is distinct from that by crude hesperidinase. Expand